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The Permanent Input Hypothesis : The Case of Textbooks and (No) Student Learning in Sierra Leone

ACADEMIC YEAR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACCESS TO TEXTBOOKS ASSIGNMENT TO TREATMENT AVERAGE TEST SCORES CLASS TEACHER CLASS TEACHERS CLASS TEACHING CLASSROOM CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR CLASSROOM LEVEL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT CLASSROOM RATIO CLASSROOM TEACHER CLASSROOM TEACHERS CLASSROOM VISITS CLASSROOMS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY SCHOOLS CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOLS CORE TEXTBOOKS DECENTRALIZATION DISPLACEMENT OF TEACHERS DISTRICT EDUCATION ECONOMIC GROWTH EDUCATION FEES EDUCATION FOR ALL EDUCATION MANAGEMENT EDUCATION OFFICERS EDUCATION SECTOR EDUCATION SPENDING EDUCATION SYSTEM EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES EXAM EXAMS FORMAL EDUCATION GER GIRLS GROSS ENROLLMENT GROSS ENROLLMENT RATE HEAD TEACHER HEAD TEACHERS HEAD-TEACHERS HOMEWORK INTERVENTIONS JUNIOR SECONDARY JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS LEARNING MATERIALS LEARNING OUTCOMES LESSON PLANS LITERACY LITERACY TEST LITERACY TESTS LITERATURE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION NUMBER OF SCHOOLS NUMBER OF STUDENTS NUMBER OF TEACHERS NUMBER OF TEXTBOOKS NUMERACY OPEN ACCESS PAMPHLETS PAPERS PAYMENT OF TEACHERS PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS PHYSICAL PUNISHMENT PRIMARY COMPLETION PRIMARY COMPLETION RATE PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOL EXAMINATION PRIMARY SCHOOLS PRINCIPALS PRIVATE EDUCATION PRIVATE SCHOOLS PROVISION OF TEXTBOOKS QUALIFIED TEACHERS QUALITY EDUCATION READING RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS REMOTE SCHOOLS RURAL AREAS SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS SCHOOL FEES SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURE SCHOOL LEVEL SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE SCHOOL UNIFORMS SCHOOL-COHORT SCHOOLING SCHOOLS SOCIAL STUDIES SPORTS STUDENT ACCESS STUDENT ATTENDANCE STUDENT ENROLLMENT STUDENT LEARNING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES STUDENT OUTCOMES STUDENT PERFORMANCE STUDENT PROGRESS STUDENT TEACHER RATIO STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO SUBJECTS TEACHER TEACHER BEHAVIOR TEACHER BEHAVIORS TEACHER EXPECTATIONS TEACHER MOTIVATION TEACHER QUALITY TEACHER TEACHER TEACHER TRAINING TEACHERS TEACHING TEACHING MATERIALS TENURE TEST SCORES TEXTBOOK TEXTBOOK DELIVERY TEXTBOOK DISTRIBUTION TEXTBOOK PROVISION TEXTBOOKS TUITION TUITION FEES UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION USE OF TEXTBOOKS VISITS TO CLASSROOMS VOUCHERS YOUTH
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World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Africa | Sierra Leone
2014-10-02T20:12:25Z | 2014-10-02T20:12:25Z | 2014-09

A textbook provision program in Sierra Leone demonstrates how volatility in the flow of government-provided learning inputs to schools can induce storage of these inputs by school administrators to smooth future consumption. This process in turn leads to low current utilization of inputs for student learning. A randomized trial of a public program providing textbooks to primary schools had modest positive impacts on teacher behavior but no impacts on student performance. In many treatment schools, student access to textbooks did not actually increase because a large majority of the books were stored rather than distributed to students. At the same time, the propensity to save books was positively correlated with uncertainty on the part of head teachers regarding government transfers of books. The evidence suggests that schools that have high uncertainty with respect to future transfers are more likely to store a high proportion of current transfers. These results show that reducing uncertainty in school input flows could result in higher current input use for student learning. For effective program design, public policy programs must take forward-looking behavior among intermediate actors into account.

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