The people of Swaziland are its greatest resource. Yet, social and economic indicators of household welfare converge to confirm fundamental inequalities in access to incomes and assets, and the existence of significant poverty and deprivation. Furthermore, as the regional economic and social climate is transformed, the fragile gains of the past are being fast eroded. At this historic juncture, the Swazi poor need to come to the fore of the public policy framework. There is an urgent need to catalyze a new pattern of pro-poor development in Swaziland where the poor participate and share fully in growth, human development, and social protection. The report calls for prioritizing the following actions: 1) enabling the growth of smallholder agriculture, 2) ensuring effective human development investments, 3) insuring the poor against major risks, and 4) strengthening institutions to increase the poverty impact of policies. The achievement of all these will require fundamental change across sectors and leadership to carry forward the change.