A key objective of this report is to contribute toward developing a widely-shared vision for educational development for Madagascar based on a common understanding of the chalenges involved, and the part that each participant can play in realizing that vision. The report deals with all the main education sectors (i.e., primary, secondary, vocational/technical, and higher education), but the focus is necessarily limited by the complexity of the subject. In particular, non-formal education has been set aside. Similarly, neither early childhood nor curriculum development, teacher education, and pedagogical methods are addressed here. Rather, the emphasis is on key aspects of education cost and finance, and the link between spending options and educational outcomesA summary of key challenges includes an overall sector stratey of universalizing basic education of a reasonable quality while closely linking expansion of other levels and types of education and training to labor market demand. Further challenges include at the primary level, rationalizing teacher allocation to increase their time utilization; reducing the drop-out rate and grade repitition; and enhancing student learning with teaching materials and improving pedagogical management. At the secondary level, expand enrollment and increase the practice of multi-subject teaching. Reducing the cost of vocational training and improving higher education quality and responsiveness to market demand are other challenges.