This study explores the international development community's understanding of poverty and illustrates how it is related to environmental degradation. the study relies on three sources: a comprehensive general literature review, a review of past donor interventions in Nigeria, and original empirical evidence. The linkages found between poverty and environmental degradation are based on 240 household surveys analyzed by income quintiles investigated at two sites in Nigeria: the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands in the North and the Niger Delta in the South. Lessons relating "Causality and Linkages" (Chapter 2) explore various perceptions of how poverty "causes" environmental degradation, how environmental degradation "causes" poverty, or how other ofseting or reinforcing factors may influence the linkages between poverty and environmental quality. The empirical findings from the two study sites provide the primary basis for subsequent policy recommendations. Chapter 3 outlines the site selection process, summarizes the methods used, and provides detailed descriptive statistics for the two sites. the chapter concludes with an interpretation of key findings. Chapter 4 comences with a general discussion of available policies and strategies, including issues relating to self-sufficiency, precautionary principle, and adaptive co-management.Specific recommended strategies for Nigeria are based on the empirical findings from the case studies. An agenda for incorporating these strategies within ongoing Nigerian and donor initiatives concludes this chapter.