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Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study

Tunisia's Global Integration : Second Generation of Reforms to Boost Growth and Employment

ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACCOUNTING ACTIVE DEBT AGRICULTURE ANTI-COMPETITIVE PRACTICES APPAREL AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY AVERAGE TARIFF BALANCE OF PAYMENT BANK PROFITABILITY BARRIERS TO COMPETITION BENCHMARK BENCHMARKING BENEFICIARIES BILATERAL AGREEMENT BILATERAL AGREEMENTS BILATERAL COOPERATION BORROWER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT CAPITAL GOODS COLLATERALS COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES COMPETITION AUTHORITIES COMPETITION LAW COMPETITION LAWS COMPETITION LEGISLATION COMPETITIVE POSITION COMPETITIVENESS CONSUMER PRICES CONSUMERS COUNTRY MARKETS COUNTRY RISK CREDIBILITY CREDIT MARKET CREDIT STRUCTURE CURRENT ACCOUNT CUSTOMS CLEARANCE CUSTOMS PROCEDURES DEBT DEBT MANAGEMENT DEBT SERVICE DEVELOPING COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES DOMESTIC MARKET DOMESTIC MARKETS DOUBLE TAXATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC EXPANSION ECONOMIC SECTORS ECONOMIES OF SCALE EMERGING ECONOMIES ENTRY BARRIERS EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENTS EXCHANGE CONTROLS EXCHANGE RATES EXOGENOUS SHOCKS EXPENDITURES EXPORT BIAS EXPORT GROWTH EXPORT MARKET EXPORT MARKETS EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES EXPORT PERFORMANCE EXPORT VALUE EXPORT VOLUMES EXPORTER EXPORTERS EXPORTS EXTERNAL TRADE FINAL GOODS FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT FINANCIAL SECTOR FINANCIAL SUPPORT FISCAL DEFICIT FIXED COSTS FOREIGN BANKS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES FOREIGN FIRMS FOREIGN INVESTMENT FOREIGN INVESTORS FOREIGN MARKETS FRAUD FREE ACCESS FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS FREE TRADE AREA GDP PER CAPITA GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL GLOBAL COMPETITION GLOBAL INTEGRATION GLOBAL MARKET GROWTH MODELS GROWTH RATE HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RESOURCE INCOME GROWTH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS INDUSTRIAL SECTOR INFLATION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT INSURANCE INSURANCE COMPANIES INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTERNATIONAL PRICES INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS INTERNATIONAL TRADE INVENTORY INVESTING INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENT INCENTIVES KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LACK OF COMPETITION LIBERALIZATION OF TRADE LOAN LOAN DEFAULT LOAN DEFAULTS MARKET ACCESS MARKET ECONOMY MARKET FAILURE MARKET FAILURES MARKET SHARE MARKET SHARES MARKET STRUCTURE MATURITIES METAL PRODUCTS MULTILATERAL LIBERALIZATION MUTUAL RECOGNITION NET INFLOWS NONPAYMENT NONPERFORMING LOANS OIL EXPORTERS OPENNESS OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE PREFERENTIAL AGREEMENT PREFERENTIAL AGREEMENTS PREFERENTIAL PARTNERS PREFERENTIAL TRADE PREFERENTIAL TRADE AGREEMENT PRIVATE CREDIT PRIVATE INVESTMENT PROCESS OF NEGOTIATIONS PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH PROPERTY RIGHT PROTECTION RATES PUBLIC DEBT PURCHASING POWER REAL GDP REAL INCOME REGIONAL TRADE REGULATORY BARRIERS REGULATORY CONVERGENCE REGULATORY OVERSIGHT RETAIL TRADING RISK OF LOAN RULES OF ORIGIN SHAREHOLDER SPECIALIZATION STRUCTURAL CHANGE TARIFF PROTECTION TARIFF RATE TARIFF RATES TARIFF REDUCTION TARIFF REDUCTIONS TAX TAX RATE TAXATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TIMELY PAYMENT TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRADE AGREEMENT TRADE AGREEMENTS TRADE DIVERSION TRADE FACILITATION TRADE INTEGRATION TRADE LIBERALIZATION TRADE LOGISTICS TRADE NEGOTIATIONS TRADE POLICY TRADE REFORM TRADE REFORMS TRADE REGIME TRADE RESTRICTIONS TRADING TRANSACTION TRANSACTION COSTS TRANSACTIONS COSTS TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT COSTS TREATIES TRUST FUND UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATE UNFAIR COMPETITION UNILATERAL REFORM URUGUAY ROUND VALUE ADDED WAREHOUSES WELFARE GAINS WORKING CAPITAL WORLD MARKETS WTO ZERO TARIFFS
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Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Tunisia
2012-06-12T21:46:26Z | 2012-06-12T21:46:26Z | 2008-05

This report addresses the following issues: Chapter one takes stock of the integration policies implemented since the early 1970s and assessed their impact on foreign direct investments (FDI), exports and employment. Chapter two looks at today's major challenges in the manufacturing sector and the specific policies needed to address them. Chapter three assesses the entry, business, and trade restrictions in Tunisia's key backbone services sectors (telecommunication, banking, air transport, accounting, auditing, and legal services) using a well-focused regulatory questionnaire. The restrictiveness indices calculated from the regulatory questionnaire are then used to benchmark Tunisia against Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and some emerging economies and to simulate the impact of various liberalization options on the price of services and the economy via a multi-region general equilibrium model. Finally, chapter four examines the prospect for increasing exports and off shoring of a large number of services for which Tunisia has demonstrated a strong capacity for export in recent years. The significant increase in real incomes in Tunisia is the result of solid gross domestic product (GDP) growth since the mid-1960s (5 percent a year), low inflation and the demographic transition, faster than in neighboring countries. In 1996-2007, economic growth has exhibited greater resilience to moderate exogenous shocks, thanks to prudent macroeconomic management public debt declined from 62.4 percent in 2001 to 50.9 percent of GDP in 2007 thanks to pro-active debt management. The resulting decline in the debt service since 2005 combined with steady GDP growth allowed the government to 'protect' capital expenditures and key social spending within the context of low but structural fiscal deficit. While the current account remained in deficit over the last 10 years, foreign exchange reserves increased steadily thanks to increasing FDI inflows. In 2007, international reserves increased by US$ 1 billion to US$ 7.8 billion, representing 4.6 months of imports of goods and services.

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