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Achieving Accelerated and Shared Growth in Ghana : A MAMS-Based Analysis of Costs and Opportunities

ACCESS TO SAFE WATER ACCOUNTING ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL ADDITIONAL FINANCING ALLOCATION ANNUAL GROWTH ANNUAL GROWTH RATE ANNUAL RATE AUDITOR GENERAL AVERAGE GROWTH AVERAGE INCOME AVERAGE LEVEL BASELINE SCENARIO BASIC EDUCATION BORROWING BUDGET DOCUMENTS BUDGETING CALCULATION CAPITAL ACCUMULATION CAPITAL FLOWS CAPITAL STOCK CONSUMER CONTRIBUTION CONTRIBUTIONS CURRENT EXPENDITURES DEBT DEBT RELIEF DEBT SERVICE DEBT SUSTAINABILITY DEMAND FOR SERVICES DEPENDENT VARIABLE DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS DISAGGREGATED LEVEL DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME DONOR ASSISTANCE EARNINGS ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT ECONOMIC POLICY EDUCATION SERVICES EDUCATION SYSTEM EFFICIENCY GAINS ELASTICITIES ESTIMATED ELASTICITY EXPORT TAXES EXTERNAL DEBT EXTERNAL SHOCKS FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL STABILITY FISCAL PRUDENCE FOREIGN BORROWING FOREIGN GRANTS GINI COEFFICIENT GINI INDEX GOVERNMENT CONSUMPTION GOVERNMENT POLICIES GOVERNMENT REVENUES GROWTH COMPONENT GROWTH EFFECT GROWTH PERFORMANCE GROWTH PROCESS GROWTH PROSPECTS GROWTH RATE GROWTH RATES HEALTH OUTCOMES HEALTH SECTOR HIGH GROWTH HOUSEHOLD LEVEL HOUSEHOLD WELFARE HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPORT TAXES IMPROVEMENTS IN POLICIES INCOME DISPARITIES INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOME GROWTH INCOME INEQUALITY INCOME LEVELS INCOMES INCREASE IN INCOME INDEPENDENT VARIABLE INFANT INFANT HEALTH INFANT MORTALITY INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES INTEREST PAYMENTS INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE INVESTING INVESTMENT CLIMATE LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LABOR SUPPLY LEVEL OF EDUCATION LIVING STANDARDS LOCAL CURRENCY LONG RUN LONG-TERM GROWTH LOW-INCOME LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES LOW-INCOME COUNTRY MACROECONOMIC STABILITY MARKET PRICES MATERNAL MORTALITY MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES MEAN GROWTH MEDICAL CARE MEDIUM TERM MEDIUM-TERM OUTLOOK MILLENNIUM DECLARATION MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MINISTRY OF FINANCE NATIONAL ACCOUNTS NATIONAL ACCOUNTS DATA NUMERICAL TARGETS OIL PRICES PER CAPITA GROWTH PER CAPITA INCOME POLICY PACKAGES POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POLITICAL INSTABILITY POLITICAL STABILITY POVERTY LINE POVERTY OUTCOMES POVERTY REDUCING POVERTY REDUCTION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIVATE CONSUMPTION PRIVATE GOODS PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE INVESTMENTS PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR GROWTH PRO-POOR PRODUCTIVITY PROGRESS PROSPERITY PUBLIC ACCOUNTS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES PUBLIC BUDGET PUBLIC EXPENDITURE PUBLIC EXPENDITURES PUBLIC FINANCE PUBLIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE PUBLIC INVESTMENT PUBLIC INVESTMENTS PUBLIC POLICY PUBLIC PROGRAMS PUBLIC PROVISION PUBLIC RESOURCES PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SERVICE PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY PUBLIC SERVICES PUBLIC SPENDING QUALITY OF EDUCATION RAPID GROWTH RATE OF GROWTH REAL EXCHANGE RATE RECURRENT EXPENDITURES REDUCED FORM EQUATION REDUCING POVERTY RELATIVE IMPORTANCE RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS RESPECT RISING DEMAND SAFE WATER SANITATION SANITATION FACILITIES SANITATION SERVICES SAVINGS SCHOOL FEES SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECTORAL ANALYSES SERVICE DELIVERY SERVICE PROVISION SET OF GOALS SKILLED WORKERS SOCIAL SECTORS SOCIAL SERVICES SOCIAL SPENDING SOURCE OF INFORMATION SPILLOVER SPILLOVER EFFECTS STOCKS STRUCTURAL REFORMS SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS TAX RATES TERTIARY EDUCATION TOTAL COST TOTAL PUBLIC SPENDING TRADE OFFS TRANSITION ECONOMIES UNSKILLED LABOR UNSKILLED WORKER UNSKILLED WORKERS URBAN AREAS VULNERABLE GROUPS WAGE WAGE DIFFERENTIALS WAGE GROWTH WAGES WORLD MARKETS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Ghana
2012-05-24T21:59:15Z | 2012-05-24T21:59:15Z | 2008-02

This paper relies on the recently developed Maquette for Millennium Development Goals Simulations (MAMS) model to assess the consistency of alternative scaling-up and policy packages for growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana. In the baseline scenario, Ghana's strong near and medium-term growth outlook puts it in a good position to achieve the poverty Millennium Development Goal ahead of schedule, but other goals are likely to remain elusive before 2015. In the accelerated growth scenario-which addresses the major gaps in water and sanitation and other infrastructure-even more rapid growth and poverty reduction are possible, but important targets in the areas of education, health, and environment remain unattainable. Although growth is complementary to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, the authors also find important growth-human development trade-offs in the near term. The estimates show that the resource requirements for achieving the key Millennium Development Goals by 2015 are large, reaching US$82 per capita in an illustrative foreign-grant financed scenario. Increased intake and retention of students contribute to rising scarcity of unskilled labor, buttressing unskilled wages, while high demand for skills from the sectors related to the Millennium Development Goals raises the returns to human capital. These developments lead to improvements in the welfare of the poorest members of Ghanaian society and contribute to a small reduction in overall inequality.

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