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Assessment of the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Zimbabwe : A Ricardian Approach

AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL LAND AGRICULTURAL POLICY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AGRICULTURAL PRICES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES AGRICULTURE CARBON CARBON DIOXIDE CASH CROPS CLIMATE CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH CLIMATE CHANGES CLIMATE IMPACTS CLIMATE RESEARCH CLIMATE SENSITIVITY CLIMATE VARIABLES CLIMATIC CHANGE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS CLIMATIC ZONE CLIMATIC ZONES COFFEE CONSUMER SURPLUS CORN COTTON COTTON CROP CROP CROP DEVELOPMENT CROP PRODUCTION CROP VARIETIES CROP YIELDS CROPLAND CROPLANDS CROPPING CROPS DEBT DECISION MAKING DOWNPOURS DROUGHT DRY LAND DRY SEASON ECOLOGICAL ZONE ECOLOGICAL ZONES ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC EFFECTS ECONOMIC IMPACT ECONOMIC IMPACTS ECONOMIC MODELS ECONOMIC POLICIES ECONOMIC VALUE ECONOMICS ELASTICITIES ELASTICITY EMISSIONS EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION EQUILIBRIUM EXTENSION EXTENSION SERVICES FAO FARM FARM HOUSEHOLDS FARM INCOME FARM INCOMES FARM REVENUES FARMER FARMERS FARMING FARMING SYSTEM FARMING SYSTEMS FARMLAND FARMS FERTILIZER FERTILIZERS FIELD CROPS FIELD WORK FISHING FLOODING FOOD CROPS FOOD POLICY RESEARCH FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD SECURITY FORESTRY GCM GDP GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL WARMING GRAIN GREENHOUSE GASES GROUNDNUTS GROUNDWATER HARVESTING HARVESTS IFPRI INCOME INFERTILE SOILS INPUT PRICES INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE IPCC IRRIGATION LABOR COSTS LAND ECONOMICS LAND USE LAND USES LAND VALUE LIVELIHOODS LIVESTOCK MAIZE MAIZE PRODUCTION MAIZE YIELDS MARGINAL ANALYSIS MARGINAL BENEFITS MARKET PRICES MARKETING MULTIPLE CROPPING NGOS PESTICIDE PLANT GROWTH PLANTING PLANTING DATES PLOWING POST HARVEST LOSSES POTENTIAL IMPACTS PRECIPITATION PRESENT VALUE PRICE CHANGES PRIVATE SECTOR PRODUCE PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES PRODUCTIVITY PROGRAMS RA RAINFALL RAINFED FARMING RAINY SEASON RIVERS RURAL DEVELOPMENT SEA LEVEL RISE SEED SEED DEVELOPMENT SEED VARIETIES SEEDS SMALL FARMS SMALLHOLDER SMALLHOLDERS SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES SOIL SOIL QUALITY SOIL TYPE SOIL TYPES SOILS SORGHUM SPRING SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA SUBSISTENCE FARMING SUGAR SUNFLOWER SUNFLOWERS TEA TEMPERATURE TILLAGE TOBACCO VEGETABLES VEGETATION VETERINARY SERVICES WATER HARVESTING WATER RESOURCES WATER SUPPLY WELFARE EFFECTS WHEAT WORLD FOOD SUPPLY
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Zimbabwe
2012-06-07T22:16:15Z | 2012-06-07T22:16:15Z | 2007-07

This study uses the Ricardian approach to examine the economic impact of climate change on agriculture in Zimbabwe. Net farm revenue is regressed against various climate, soil, hydrological and socio-economic variables to help determine the factors that influence variability in net farm revenues. The study is based on data from a survey of 700 smallholder farming households interviewed across the country. The empirical results show that climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) have significant effects on net farm revenues in Zimbabwe. In addition to the analysis of all farms, the study also analyzes the effects on dryland farms and farms with irrigation. The analysis indicates that net farm revenues are affected negatively by increases in temperature and positively by increases in precipitation. The results from sensitivity analysis suggest that agricultural production in Zimbabwe's smallholder farming system is significantly constrained by climatic factors (high temperature and low rainfall). The elasticity results show that the changes in net revenue are high for dryland farming compared to farms with irrigation. The results show that farms with irrigation are more resistant to changes in climate, indicating that irrigation is an important adaptation option to help reduce the impact of further changes in climate. An overview of farmer adaptation to changing climate indicates that farmers are already using some adaptation strategies-such as dry and early planting, growing drought resistant crops, changing planting dates, and using irrigation-to cushion themselves against further anticipated adverse climatic conditions. An important policy message from the empirical findings is that there is a need to provide adequate extension information services to ensure that farmers receive up-to-date information about rainfall patterns in the forthcoming season so that they make well-informed decisions on their planting dates. Policies that increase farmer training and access to credit and aid facilities and help farmers acquire livestock and other important farm assets can help improve net farm performance. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of fertilizers and crop seeds before the onset of the next cropping season can also significantly improve net farm performance across households.

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