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Absenteeism and Beyond : Instructional Time Loss and Consequences

ABSENTEEISM RATES ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT ACADEMIC LEARNING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ACADEMIC SUBJECTS ACADEMIC YEAR ACCESS TO TEXTBOOKS ACHIEVEMENT OUTCOMES ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES ACHIEVEMENT TESTS ACHIEVEMENTS ACTIVE LEARNING METHODS AFTERNOON SHIFT APTITUDE ASSESSMENT METHODS ATTENDANCE RATE ATTENDANCE RATES AVERAGE CLASS SIZE BASIC EDUCATION BASIC SERVICE BASIC SKILLS BOOK DISTRIBUTION CALL CIRCUIT SUPERVISORS CLASS ACTIVITIES CLASS SIZES CLASS TIME CLASSROOM CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT CLASSROOM TIME CLASSROOMS COGNITIVE RESEARCH CURRICULA CURRICULAR OBJECTIVES CURRICULUM DROPOUT RATES EARLY GRADES EDUCATION FOR ALL EDUCATION FOR ALL INITIATIVE EDUCATION INVESTMENTS EDUCATION LENDING EDUCATION LEVEL EDUCATION MINISTRIES EDUCATION SYSTEMS EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT EDUCATIONAL INPUTS EDUCATIONAL POLICIES EDUCATIONAL QUALITY EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH EDUCATIONAL SERVICES EDUCATORS ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS EXAM EXPANSION OF EDUCATION EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES FEMALE TEACHERS FINAL EXAMINATIONS FINAL EXAMS FOREIGN LANGUAGES GIRLS GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS GRADE TEACHERS HEAD TEACHERS HIGHER DROPOUT HOMEWORK HOURS OF INSTRUCTION HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INSERVICE TRAINING INSTRUCTION INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY INSTRUCTIONAL EFFICIENCY INSTRUCTIONAL HOURS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL SETTINGS INSTRUCTIONAL TIME INTERACTIVE INSTRUCTION INTERACTIVE LEARNING INTERNATIONAL STUDIES LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS LEARNING LEARNING ACTIVITIES LEARNING MODELS LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING PROCESSES LEARNING TIME LITERACY LITERATURE LOW-INCOME STUDENTS LOWER ACHIEVEMENT LOWER SECONDARY LOWER SECONDARY EDUCATION MATHEMATICS MIDDLE EASTERN MINISTRIES OF EDUCATION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MULTIGRADE CLASSES MULTIGRADE TEACHING NATURAL SCIENCES NON-FORMAL EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENTS OVERCROWDED CLASSES PAPERS PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT PARENTAL SUPPORT PEDAGOGY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY GRADES PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULA PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS PRIMARY SCHOOLS PRIMARY-SCHOOL PRINCIPALS PRIVATE SCHOOL PRIVATE SCHOOL TEACHERS PRIVATE SCHOOLS PRIVATE TUTORING PROFESSORS PUBLIC SCHOOLS PUPIL PERFORMANCE QUALITY EDUCATION QUALITY OF CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION QUALITY OF EDUCATION RATES OF ABSENTEEISM READING RECURRENT EXPENDITURE REGULAR SCHOOLS REPETITION RESEARCHERS RURAL AREAS RURAL SCHOOL RURAL SCHOOLS SALARY INCREASES SCHOOL CALENDAR SCHOOL CLASSROOMS SCHOOL DAY SCHOOL DAYS SCHOOL DISTRICTS SCHOOL HOURS SCHOOL LEVEL SCHOOL OPERATION SCHOOL OWNERS SCHOOL REGISTERS SCHOOL STAFF SCHOOL TIME SCHOOL VISIT SCHOOL VISITS SCHOOL YEAR SCHOOLING SCHOOLS SCIENCE STUDY SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOLS SERVICE TRAINING SHIFT SCHOOLS SKILLS ACQUISITION SOCIAL SCIENCES SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENT ABSENCES STUDENT ABSENTEEISM STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT STUDENT ATTENDANCE STUDENT ATTENDANCE RATES STUDENT GROUPS STUDENT LEARNING STUDENT PERFORMANCE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA SUBJECT AREAS SUBJECT MATTER TEACHER TEACHER ABSENTEEISM TEACHER ATTRITION TEACHER BEHAVIOR TEACHER BEHAVIORS TEACHER PARTICIPATION TEACHER QUALITY TEACHER RECRUITMENT TEACHER STRIKES TEACHER TRAINING TEACHER UNIONS TEACHERS TEACHERS UNIONS TEACHING TEACHING ACTIVITY TEACHING AIDS TEST SCORES TEXTBOOK TEXTBOOK AVAILABILITY TEXTBOOKS THE GAMBIA TRAINEES TUITION TUTORS TYPES OF STUDENTS UNIVERSAL PRIMARY SCHOOL COMPLETION UNIVERSITY STUDENTS URBAN SCHOOLS VISITS TO SCHOOLS VOCATIONAL SKILLS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Latin America & Caribbean | Middle East and North Africa | Africa | Tunisia | Brazil | Ghana | Morocco
2012-06-08T19:11:54Z | 2012-06-08T19:11:54Z | 2007-10

Studies have shown that learning outcomes are related to the amount of time students engage in learning tasks. However, visits to schools have revealed that students are often taught for only a fraction of the intended time, particularly in lower-income countries. Losses are due to informal school closures, teacher absenteeism, delays, early departures, and sub-optimal use of time in the classroom. A study was undertaken to develop an efficient methodology for measuring instructional time loss. Thus, instructional time use was measured in sampled schools in Tunisia, Morocco, Ghana, and the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The percentage of time that students were engaged in learning vis-à-vis government expectations was approximately 39 percent in Ghana, 63 percent in Pernambuco, 71 percent in Morocco, and 78 percent in Tunisia. Instructional time use is a mediator variable that is challenging to measure, so it often escapes scrutiny. Research suggests that merely financing the ingredients of instruction is not enough to produce learning outcomes; students must also get sufficient time to process the information. The quantity-quality tradeoff that often accompanies large-scale enrollments may be partly due to instructional time restrictions. Time wastage also distorts budgetary outlays and teacher salary rates. To achieve the Millennium Development Goals students must get more of the time that governments, donors, and parents pay for.

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