Dependence on the oil sector as a source of economic growth is no longer sustainable given the rate at which oil reserves are being depleted. Yemen will come to rely on other sectors of the economy, some of which have potential but remain under-developed. The mineral sector is one of these. The third five year plan for development and poverty alleviation 2006-2010, identified the mineral sector as one of the key sources of future growth for the country, along with tourism and agriculture. This study was conducted to assess the potential contribution of the mineral sector to sustainable growth and poverty alleviation in Yemen and to define the constraints that will need to be overcome if this potential is to be realized. In so doing it helps to define those areas of government action and donor support that will need to be sustained over the medium to long term.