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The Economy-wide Effects of Further Trade Reforms in Tunisia’s Services Sectors

ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING SERVICES ADVERSE EFFECT ADVERTISING AGRICULTURE AIR AIR FARES AIR PASSENGER AIR SERVICE AIR TRAFFIC AIR TRANSPORT AVERAGE PRICE AVIATION INDUSTRY BANK LENDING BANK REGULATION BANKING SERVICES BARRIERS TO ENTRY BENCHMARK BENCHMARK DATA BENCHMARKING BENCHMARKS BILATERAL TRADE CAPITAL ACCUMULATION CAPITAL MARKETS CARRIERS CD COMPETITIVENESS CONDITIONS OF ENTRY CONSUMER PRICES CONSUMER SURPLUS CONSUMERS CONTESTABILITY CREDIT CARDS DEPOSITS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPING ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DIRECT ACCESS DOMESTIC AVIATION DOMESTIC BANK DOMESTIC BANKS DOMESTIC CAPITAL DOMESTIC CAPITAL MARKETS DUOPOLY ECOMMERCE ECONOMETRICS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC EFFECTS ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE ECONOMIC RENTS ECONOMIES OF SCALE EMERGING ECONOMIES EMPLOYMENT EQUILIBRIUM EXPORTS FINANCIAL CRISIS FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FINANCIAL SECTOR FINANCIAL SERVICES FOREIGN BANK FOREIGN BANKS FOREIGN COMPETITION FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOREIGN FIRMS FOREIGN INVESTMENT FOREIGN OWNERSHIP FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT FREIGHT FUTURE GROWTH GDP GLOBAL ECONOMY GLOBAL MARKET GLOBAL MARKETS GNP GOVERNMENT FINANCE GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS GROWTH RATES HEALTH SERVICES HOME COUNTRIES HOME COUNTRY HOUSING IMPERFECT SUBSTITUTES IMPORT BARRIERS IMPORT TARIFFS INCOME INSURANCE INTEREST RATE INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTERNATIONAL TRADE JOB CREATION JOINT VENTURE LABOR MARKET LAWS LIBERALIZATION MARITIME TRANSPORT MARKET ACCESS MARKET REGULATION MARKET SHARE MARKET STRUCTURE MARKETING MERCHANDISE MERCHANDISE TRADE MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION MONOPOLY MOTOR VEHICLES NET LOSS NEW ENTRANTS OUTPUT OUTSOURCING OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE PASSENGER KILOMETRES PASSENGER TRAFFIC PASSENGER TRANSPORT PASSENGERS PERFORMANCE MEASURES PRICE CHANGES PRODUCER PRICES PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCT MARKET PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH PROTECTION STRUCTURE PUBLIC OWNERSHIP QUOTAS REAL GDP REAL SECTOR REDISTRIBUTIVE EFFECTS REGULATORY CONDITIONS REGULATORY REGIME REGULATORY RESTRICTIONS RETAIL RETAIL TRADE REVENUE PASSENGER ROUTES SALES SANITATION SAVINGS SAVINGS RATES SECURITIES SMALL BUSINESS SUPPLIERS SUPPLY CHAINS SUPPLY CURVES TAX TAX RATES TELECOMMUNICATIONS TOTAL REVENUE TRADE BARRIERS TRADE LIBERALIZATION TRADE NEGOTIATIONS TRADE POLICY TRADE REFORMS TRADING ACTIVITIES TRADING ACTIVITY TRANSPORT COSTS TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT TRANSPORT INDUSTRY TRUE URUGUAY ROUND VALUE ADDED WAGES WORLD ECONOMY WTO
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Middle East and North Africa | Tunisia
2012-03-19T18:40:30Z | 2012-03-19T18:40:30Z | 2010-06-01

The purpose of this paper is to benchmark Tunisia against other emerging economies in terms of the regulatory barriers affecting particular services sectors, and to assess the economy-wide effects of further liberalizing these services trade restrictions, compared with reducing the dispersion in barriers to its merchandise trade. On the basis of a rather restricted sample of services sectors, partial regulatory reform would yield gains roughly equivalent to full unilateral reform of manufacturing tariffs, but roughly one-tenth the gains from full bilateral reform of border protection in agriculture with the European Union. The adjustment costs associated with these services trade reforms would be minimal. The paper identifies the reasons why the gains from these services reforms are relatively small, and argues that a wider set of reforms could provide win-win outcomes and even fewer adjustment costs. By contrast, the gains in agriculture and manufacturing tend to come at the expense of domestic output in the reforming sectors -- the gains are greater, but so too are the adjustment costs.

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