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Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR)

Egypt - Development Policy Review

ACCESS TO BANKS ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACCOUNTING ADVERSE EFFECTS AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT AGRICULTURE ALLOCATION OF CREDIT BAILOUTS BANK DEPOSITS BANK GUARANTEE BANK INTERMEDIATION BANK LENDING BANKING DEPOSITS BANKING SUPERVISION BANKING SYSTEM BANKRUPTCIES BANKRUPTCY BENEFICIARIES BENEFICIARY BID BUDGET CONSTRAINT BUDGET DEFICIT BUSINESS CLIMATE BUSINESS CYCLES CAPITAL FLOWS CAPITAL INFLOWS CAPITAL MARKET CAPITAL MARKETS CAPITAL STOCK CASH TRANSFERS CENTRAL BANK CLEAN WATER COMPETITIVE AUCTIONS COMPETITIVE BIDDING CONSUMER DURABLES CONSUMER PRICE INDEX CONSUMER PROTECTION CONTINGENT DEBTS CONTINGENT LIABILITIES CONTROLLED PRICES CREDIT CULTURE CREDIT FLOWS CREDIT OUTSTANDING CREDITOR CREDITOR BANKS CURRENCY CURRENCY DEPRECIATION CURRENCY DEVALUATION DEBT DEBTORS DECENTRALIZATION DECISION MAKING DEFLATORS DEMOGRAPHIC DEPOSIT DEPOSITS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT BANK DEVELOPMENT POLICIES DEVELOPMENT POLICY DIRECT ACCESS DOMESTIC DEBTS DOMESTIC PRICES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC POLICIES ECONOMIC REFORM ECONOMIC RESEARCH ECONOMIC STRUCTURE ECONOMIC THEORY ELASTICITY EQUIPMENT EQUITY HOLDINGS EQUITY MARKET EQUITY STAKES EXCHANGE RATE EXCHANGE RATES EXPENDITURES EXPORT MARKETS EXPORTS EXTERNAL DEBT EXTERNALITY EXTREME POVERTY FACTORS OF PRODUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION FINANCES FINANCIAL ASSETS FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL SECTOR FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS FISCAL DEFICIT FISCAL POLICIES FLOW OF FUNDS FOOD PRICES FOREIGN ASSETS FOREIGN CURRENCY FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES FOREIGN INVESTORS FREE RIDER FREE RIDER PROBLEM FUTURE GROWTH GDP GDP DEFLATOR GDP PER CAPITA GINI COEFFICIENT GLOBAL ECONOMY GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS GOVERNANCE INDICATORS GOVERNMENT BORROWING GOVERNMENT BUDGET GOVERNMENT DEFICIT GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE GOVERNMENT FINANCE GOVERNMENT GUARANTEES GOVERNMENT PAPER GOVERNMENT POLICIES GOVERNMENT REVENUES GOVERNMENT SPENDING GROWTH RATES HOLDING HOLDING COMPANIES HOLDING COMPANY HOUSEHOLD SAVINGS HOUSEHOLD WEALTH HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INCOME TAX INCOMES INEFFICIENCY INFLATION INFLATIONARY PRESSURES INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS INSURANCE INTEREST RATE INTEREST RATES INTERNAL AUDITS INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS INVESTMENT ALLOCATION INVESTMENT BANK INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENT FLOWS INVESTMENT RATE INVESTOR INTEREST JOINT VENTURE LABOR MARKET LAND HOLDINGS LEASE PAYMENTS LENDERS LIFE EXPECTANCY LIQUIDITY LIVING STANDARDS LOAN LOCAL CURRENCY LOW INTEREST RATES M2 MARGINAL COST MARKET ECONOMY MATURITIES MBI MERGERS MISMANAGEMENT MONEY SUPPLY MUTUAL FUNDS NATIONAL INVESTMENT NATIONAL SAVINGS OIL PRICES OPEN ECONOMIES OPEN ECONOMY OUTSTANDING DOMESTIC DEBT OUTSTANDING STOCK PENSION PENSION REFORMS PENSION SYSTEM PENSIONS PERSONAL INCOME POVERTY ALLEVIATION PRIVATE ENTITY PRIVATE FINANCING PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE INVESTMENTS PRIVATIZATION PRODUCTION FUNCTION PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES PUBLIC DEBT PUBLIC INVESTMENT PUBLIC INVESTMENTS PUBLIC SPENDING RATES OF RETURN REAL ESTATE REAL GDP REAL INTEREST REAL INTEREST RATES REGIONAL TRADE REMITTANCE REMITTANCES REMOTE AREAS RESERVE RETURNS RISE IN INFLATION SAFETY NET SOCIAL FUND SOCIAL SAFETY NET STATE BANK STATE BANKS STOCK EXCHANGE STRUCTURAL CHANGE SYSTEMIC RISKS TAX TAX RATES TAX REVENUES TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRADE REFORMS TRADES TRADING TRANSPARENCY TREASURY UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATE VALUE ADDED VOLATILITY WAGES WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX WORLD ECONOMY
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Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Egypt, Arab Republic of
2013-02-05T17:25:26Z | 2013-02-05T17:25:26Z | 2008-05

This development policy review finds ample evidence that Egypt has prospered as a consequence of giving the economy a greater market orientation. While favorable global conditions have helped, the structural changes over the last two decades have been an essential ingredient for Egypt's success. Productivity has risen more in segments of the economy where the private sector s share in investment and output grew most. Empirical estimates done for this report suggest that each dollar of private investment contributed four times more to output than a dollar of public investment, reflecting in part the poor choice and maintenance of public investment. Consequently, further increases in output, incomes and productivity may be expected from the recently rising share of private investment in the total. Public sector productivity has also increased in recent years, reflecting in part the increased importance of state owned firms in petroleum and natural gas. Egypt's economic growth is also now more closely correlated with that of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries magnified by a factor of 1.25, and volatility has declined. This results from many links, not just the direct effect of oil and gas.

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