The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process in 1999 to strengthen the poverty alleviation focus of their assistance to low-income countries. At the IMF, the introduction of the PRSP was accompanied by the transformation of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF), the concessional lending window, into the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), with a view to giving a more central role to poverty reduction and pro-poor growth considerations in the design of IMF-supported programs in low-income countries. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Part two provides background information on poverty incidence in Mozambique, as well as on political and economic developments since the early 1990s. The relevance of the PRSP approach to Mozambique s situation, application of the underlying principles, and preliminary evidence on results, are examined in part three. The effectiveness of IMF assistance, including alignment of the PRGF and technical assistance to PRSP objectives is assessed in part four. Part five considers the effectiveness of World Bank support, also including alignment of that support to the objectives of the PRSP approach. Part six reviews IMF-World Bank collaboration in relation to the PRSP process, and part seven presents the main conclusions and lessons.