The purpose of this study is to compare, and contrast the resource requirements, and effectiveness of adult literacy programs in Uganda, assess its implementation, and recommend future policy for the development of adult literacy education. The report presents the research, and evaluation background, providing analyses of effectiveness in terms of both the attainment, and retention of reading, writing, and arithmetic skills, including practical knowledge, and attitude changes - particularly, knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, and care. It explores the factors affecting the performance of adult education, the costs of activities, and the extent of local commitment under the current socioeconomic conditions. The context of literacy programs in Uganda, and the current state of both government, and nongovernmental organizations' programs, are described, emphasizing on outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, rather than process, or methodology. Conclusions suggest that while the programs are helping the government in redressing the imbalance of educational opportunities, namely between men and women, these programs are nonetheless in danger of missing their primary target, i.e., the people who have had no schooling. Furthermore, the average level of attainment is very limited, revealing the quality of implementation is the major explanation for the variations in learners' attainments. Recommendations suggest consistency in policy, to ensure reconciliation between decentralization, and the priority for universal literacy.