Between November 1997 and March 1998, heavy rains (the El Nino rains) dumped over 1.5 m on parts of Kenya. Many parts of the country were isolated for months and when the floods receded it was clear that the vital services-health delivery, transportation, and water supply-needed to be urgently restored. The World Bank was requested to assist in the massive recovery efforts. However, given that the Government of Kenya was slotted into a low case lending scenario by the Bank, it was only on an exceptional basis that the Bank agreed in July 1998 to approve the El Nino Emergency Credit for US$ 40.0 million (an additional US$ 37.5 million was reallocated from another existing credit towards the reconstruction of urban roads). Quarterly external audits were mandated in approving the credit. During the preparation of the El Nino Emergency Project (ENEP), it was agreed with the Government that the management of the project would be placed under a group of professionals hired from the private sector placed within the institutional structure of the Office of the President. The African Development Bank financed US$ 15 million equivalent and the Agence Francaise de Developpement an additional Euro 28 million of rehabilitation funds, all functioning under the same management structure and arrangements.