Botswana is one of a small group of countries in the contemporary era, virtually the only African country that has sustained rapid economic growth over an extended period. Over the past three decades, Botswana's real per capita income grew by more than 7 percent per annum, which is comparable to rates of growth achieved by countries like Korea and Thailand. Remarkably, this growth, facilitated by mineral wealth, led neither to isolated enclaves nor to profligate spending. Growth continued to be high as a result of structural change within the economy as the growth in the of mining and government sectors slackened. Botswana's record in human development is equally impressive, with one important exception, HIV infection. Major emphasis has been placed on providing basic education and primary health care throughout the country. Primary school enrolment has gone from 66,100 in 1966 to 319,000 in 1995, representing an average compounded growth rate of 5.4 percent per annum. Further, in recent decades, the gender balance has consistently involved greater than 50 percent female enrollment. Meanwhile, secondary school and university enrolment, from a much lower base, both grew at double digit growth rates.