This Note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration carried out from August to November 1998. The study aims to define the main causes of transport dysfunction, quantify them, and recommend a suitable framework for monitoring changes in the parameters. This forms part of the sub-Saharan African air quality initiative that was launched jointly in 1998 by the Urban Transport Component of the sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP) and the World Bank Institute. The kinds of dysfunction the study found in Dakar agglomeration include: road safety problems, congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution. This Note recommends that air pollution caused by urban transport can be reduced through measures in a number of areas: institutional, technical, or organizational.