The main objective of the study is to provide the Government of Senegal the analyses and information to implement policies towards reducing the rural poor's vulnerability. While during the latest years, economic growth reduced poverty in the country, this has been less noticeable among the rural population, who actually account for 6 million people over a total population of 10 million. The rural economy remains essentially agrarian, with a 65 percent of its population living in poverty. Natural risks are intimately linked to the agrarian nature of the rural economy, and to its "Sahelian" environment. Drought cycles reduce agricultural production, thus such impact varies according to the agricultural season, the agro-ecological zone, the type of crops, and the presence - or not - of irrigation systems. In addition, insects, and the disease these carry, affect plants and animals, adding to the natural risks. Economic risks occur, as elsewhere, due to changes in the agricultural production and trade systems, thus affecting revenues and the acquisition power. Moreover, the report specifies rural populations are further exposed to health shocks, aggravated by the obstacles in accessing health services. Education, particularly of rural children, is subject to several risks: total absence of school attendance, drop-outs during the school year, or inability to achieve sufficient basic competencies. As for social risks, the main sources within rural areas, are on one hand, the regional conflict in Casamance, and on the other, crime, robberies, property conflicts, and violence, affecting communities, and productivity. Among the recommendations, the report stipulates financial services and revenue diversification in rural areas are the main issues requiring a framework on policy, and public spending. A multi-sectoral vision of risks should help identify vicious cycles, while its eradication will require the collaboration of various sectors.