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Migration from Zambia : Ensuring Temporariness through Cooperation

ABUSE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK AGRICULTURAL WORKERS BORDERS BRAIN DRAIN CITIZENS CITIZENSHIP CIVIL UNREST COMPENSATION DECISION MAKING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DISCRIMINATION ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES EMIGRATION EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EXPATRIATES FAIR COMPENSATION FAMILIES FARMS GAMBIA GOVERNMENT AGENCIES HEALTH CARE HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS HEALTH INSURANCE HEALTH WORKERS HOSPITAL HOSPITALS HOST COUNTRIES HOST COUNTRY HOUSING HUMAN CAPITAL IMMIGRANT IMMIGRANTS IMMIGRATION IMMIGRATION POLICIES IMPACT OF MIGRATION INSURANCE SCHEMES INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION ISOLATION LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LEVEL OF EDUCATION LIVING CONDITIONS MAJORITY OF CHILDREN MEDICAL SCHOOL MIDWIFERY MIGRANT MIGRANTS MIGRATION MIGRATION ISSUES MIGRATION POLICY MIGRATION RATES MOBILITY NATIONALS NATURE OF HEALTH NURSES NURSING OLD-AGE PEACE PERMANENT MIGRATION PERMANENT RESIDENCE PERMANENT SETTLEMENT PHARMACISTS PHYSICIANS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOLING PRIMARY SCHOOLS PROGRESS PROVISION OF INFORMATION PUBLIC HEALTH PULL FACTORS PUNITIVE MEASURES PUSH FACTORS REMITTANCE REMITTANCES REPATRIATION RETURN MIGRATION RETURN OF MIGRANTS RICHER COUNTRIES SCREENING SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOLING SKILLED PERSONNEL SKILLED PROFESSIONALS SKILLED WORKERS SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL SCIENCES SOCIAL WELFARE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TECHNICAL EDUCATION TEMPORARY MIGRANTS TEMPORARY MIGRATION TERTIARY EDUCATION TERTIARY LEVEL THE TRADE NEGOTIATIONS TRAINING PROGRAMS TREATY UNEMPLOYMENT VISAS WORKFORCE WORKING CONDITIONS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Zambia
2012-06-05T19:00:41Z | 2012-06-05T19:00:41Z | 2007-03

The paper analyzes migration from Zambia in order to understand how migration policy can support development in the least developed countries. Overall emigration from Zambia is not high by regional standards, but the pattern of migration is skewed toward the skilled and away from the unskilled. A development-friendly approach to migration for Zambia would strive to ensure the temporariness of both types of movement. First, industrial countries may be willing to accept a higher level of unskilled immigration if they could be certain that it is temporary. Second, any adverse effects of brain drain would be greatly alleviated if skilled emigration is temporary. The problem is that host countries cannot unilaterally ensure temporariness of unskilled migration because repatriation cannot be accomplished without the help of source countries like Zambia, and source countries today have little incentive to facilitate the return of the unskilled. At the same time, source countries like Zambia cannot unilaterally ensure temporariness of the skilled because repatriation cannot be accomplished without the help of the host countries, and host countries currently have little incentive to send back the skilled. So, there is a strong case and considerable scope for cooperation between source countries like Zambia and destination countries in the design and implementation of migration policy so that unskilled migration becomes feasible and skilled migration takes a more desirable form.

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