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Working Paper

Is Reintegration Still Worth Doing Eight Years After the Ceasefire? : Situational Analysis of Ex-Combatants in the Pool Region, Republic of Congo

ABUSE AGRICULTURAL LAND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ALLIANCES ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ATROCITIES BOUNDARIES BOYCOTT CHILD SOLDIERS CIVIL WAR CIVILIAN POPULATION CONFLICT CONFLICT RESOLUTION CRIME DAILY WAGE DEMOBILIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS DISARMAMENT DISSEMINATION DISTRICTS DRINKING WATER ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC REINTEGRATION ELECTIONS EX-COMBATANT EXPLOITATION EXTERNAL INTERVENTION FAMILY MEMBERS FARMERS FEMALE FEMALE COMBATANTS FIGHTING FLAG FOOD SUPPLIES GUERRILLAS HEALTH CENTERS HOMES HOSPITAL HOSTAGE HOUSEHOLDS HOUSES HOUSING HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE HUMANITARIAN PROGRAMS ILLNESSES IMMIGRATION INHABITANTS INTERNATIONAL BANK INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION INTRAREGIONAL DISPARITIES LANDOWNER LEGAL STATUS LOCAL AUTHORITIES LOCAL COMMUNITIES LOCAL MECHANISMS LOCAL POPULATION LOCALITIES MEAT MEETING MICRO-PROJECT MILITIA MISUNDERSTANDING MOTHER NATIONS NATIVES NEIGHBORHOOD NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION NURSE OCCUPATION PEACE PEACE AGREEMENTS POLICE POLITICAL OPPOSITION POLITICAL PARTIES POLITICAL PARTY POLITICAL VIOLENCE POPULAR MOVEMENT PRESIDENTIAL DECREE QUALITATIVE DATA RAPES RECENT IMMIGRANTS RECONSTRUCTION REGIONAL DISPARITY REGIONAL VARIATION REHABILITATION RELIGIOUS LEADERS RENTING ROAD RURAL AREAS SCHOOL YEAR SECURITY FORCES SECURITY SITUATION SETTLERS SOCIAL CHANGE SOCIAL REINTEGRATION SOLDIER SPOUSE SQUATTERS TORTURE TOWNS UNDP URBAN CENTER VILLAGE CHIEFS VILLAGES VIOLENCE WAR WARFARE WARS WEAPON WOMAN YOUNG MEN YOUTH
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Congo, Republic of
2017-06-27T15:53:48Z | 2017-06-27T15:53:48Z | 2011

Although official warfare in the Republic of Congo stopped more than eight years ago, the pool region has continued to feel the collateral effects of war until now at a scale largely ignored by the general public. The pool region is where the Ninjas, a group of local militias, originated during the civil strife and retreated to afterwards. Peace and recovery did not gain traction in the area until 2010/11. Key findings of this analysis of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process include: The lack of a public security presence: the pool region has largely been deprived of public security forces over the past thirteen years (1998-2010), which led to power abuse. Until recently, several Ninja bases remained throughout the pool region, led by free-riding commanders operating independently of any official Ninja structure. The recognition of intra-regional disparity: warfare affected localities very differently. While the southern districts have been calm for the past eight years, abuse was regularly reported along the railroad prior to 2011. The economic situation of ex-combatants: There have been many self-demobilizations in the past decade, and many ex-combatants have already learned to cope. The heterogeneity of ex-combatants: ex-combatants do not constitute a homogeneous group. Therefore, their reintegration needs differ. The consulting team developed a typology to help understand the profiles of all ex-combatants. Non-targeted assistance: the consulting team recommends pairing recent governmental disarmament operations with community driven reconstruction programming to provide closure to the population affected by the war. The main focus of programming should be to reenergize local economies destroyed by the war, especially medium-scale agriculture and animal husbandry, and to open up the region to development. The objective of this study was to analyze the extent of reintegration of ex-combatants in the pool region and to formulate recommendations for potential future action.

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