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A Brief History of Urban Development and Upgrading in Swaziland

AFFORDABLE HOUSING AUTONOMY BANKING SECTOR CAPITAL CITY CDS CITIES CITIES ALLIANCE CITY COUNCIL CITY DEVELOPMENT CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY CIVIL SERVICE COMMUNITIES COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY REPRESENTATIVES COMMUNITY RESOURCES CONTROL OVER LAND CRIME CROWN LAND DEVOLUTION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FEMALE FEMALE HEADED HOUSEHOLDS FORMAL EDUCATION FREEHOLD TITLE GENDER GENDER EQUALITY GOVERNMENT REFORM HABITAT HEALTH HAZARDS HOME OWNERSHIP HOMES HOTEL HOUSES HOUSING HOUSING DEMAND HOUSING DEVELOPMENT HOUSING ESTATES HOUSING FINANCE HOUSING MARKET HOUSING POLICY HOUSING SITES HOUSING UNITS HUMAN SETTLEMENT HUMAN SETTLEMENTS INCOME DISTRIBUTION INFLATION INFORMAL HOUSING INFORMAL MARKET INFORMAL SETTLEMENT INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION INTERVENTION INTERVENTIONS LAND ADMINISTRATION LAND ALLOCATION LAND MANAGEMENT LAND OWNERSHIP LAND RIGHTS LAND SETTLEMENT LAND SPECULATION LAND TENURE LAND TRANSACTIONS LAND USE LAWS LEGISLATION LIVING CONDITIONS LOCAL ADMINISTRATION LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURES LOCAL GOVERNMENTS LOW INCOME LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES LOW-INCOME LOW-INCOME GROUPS LOW-INCOME HOUSING MANDATES MARKET VALUE MIGRATION MUNICIPAL FINANCE NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY NATURAL RESOURCES NEW SETTLEMENTS OCCUPATION ON URBAN LAND PHYSICAL PLANNING POVERTY REDUCTION PRIVATE BANKING PROPERTY RIGHTS PUBLIC WORKS RENTAL HOUSING RENTALS RENTS RESETTLEMENT RESIDENCY RURAL AREA RURAL AREAS RURAL DEVELOPMENT RURAL HOUSING SAFETY SECURE TENURE SECURITY OF TENURE SELF-HELP SELF-HELP HOUSING SERVICE PROVISION SERVICED LAND SETTLERS SEWAGE SEWERAGE SERVICES SHACKS SHELTER SHOPS SITES & SERVICES SLUMS SMALL BUSINESSES SOLID WASTE COLLECTION SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SUBSIDIARY SUPPLY OF LAND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TEMPORARY SHELTERS TENURE SYSTEMS TOWN PLANNING TOWNS TOWNSHIPS TRAFFIC TRANSPORT TRUST FUNDS UDP URBAN URBAN AFFAIRS URBAN AREA URBAN AREAS URBAN AUTHORITIES URBAN CENTRES URBAN CONSTITUENCIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT URBAN DWELLERS URBAN EMPLOYMENT URBAN EXPANSION URBAN GOVERNMENT URBAN GROWTH URBAN LAND URBAN LIVING URBAN MANAGEMENT URBAN POPULATION URBAN POPULATIONS URBAN RESIDENTS URBAN SECTOR URBAN SERVICES URBAN SETTLEMENT URBAN SETTLEMENTS WATER SERVICES WATER SUPPLIES WATER SUPPLY
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Cities Alliance/World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Swaziland | Eswatini
2014-07-29T21:38:29Z | 2014-07-29T21:38:29Z | 2007-01

This history illustrates a number of themes encountered in Swaziland that faces developing countries and their external partners in Africa and beyond. Firstly, the history relates the experience of a small and comparatively insular country in addressing complex challenges deriving from rapid urbanization and, as a result, the growing need to adapt governance systems and structures. A second key issue is the challenge that small nations like Swaziland face in attracting assistance. In the absence of significant lending programs, institutions like IBRD have limited resources available for advisory services, particularly given the ineligibility of middle income countries for most trust funds available in Africa. The third theme that emerges is the centrality of land. Access to land in Swaziland is a cross-cutting issue that influences outcomes in many sectors. A fourth important theme relates to the 'generational shift' which is a necessary concomitant of any serious decentralization process. Finally, the history demonstrates that despite all the challenges faced, Swaziland is persisting with its interdependent governance and urbanization reform agendas. Although Swaziland's long-term governance and urban development strategy was not formally defined in a donor approved format, all the elements of a sound intergovernmental reform and decentralization process can be seen, retrospectively, to be in place. This long-term strategy, which is similar to those being implemented by a growing number of governments in the sub-Saharan region, should guide partner support for the required generational shifts.

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