This history illustrates a number of themes encountered in Swaziland that faces developing countries and their external partners in Africa and beyond. Firstly, the history relates the experience of a small and comparatively insular country in addressing complex challenges deriving from rapid urbanization and, as a result, the growing need to adapt governance systems and structures. A second key issue is the challenge that small nations like Swaziland face in attracting assistance. In the absence of significant lending programs, institutions like IBRD have limited resources available for advisory services, particularly given the ineligibility of middle income countries for most trust funds available in Africa. The third theme that emerges is the centrality of land. Access to land in Swaziland is a cross-cutting issue that influences outcomes in many sectors. A fourth important theme relates to the 'generational shift' which is a necessary concomitant of any serious decentralization process. Finally, the history demonstrates that despite all the challenges faced, Swaziland is persisting with its interdependent governance and urbanization reform agendas. Although Swaziland's long-term governance and urban development strategy was not formally defined in a donor approved format, all the elements of a sound intergovernmental reform and decentralization process can be seen, retrospectively, to be in place. This long-term strategy, which is similar to those being implemented by a growing number of governments in the sub-Saharan region, should guide partner support for the required generational shifts.