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Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania : Evidence from a Tracking Survey

ADULT MORTALITY AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE AIDS EPIDEMIC BASIC NEEDS BUSINESS OWNERSHIP CHANGE IN CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION AGGREGATE CONSUMPTION DATA CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE CONSUMPTION GROWTH CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION POVERTY DECLINE IN POVERTY DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMPTION DOWRY EARNINGS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC SHOCKS EDUCATION LEVELS EDUCATIONAL LEVELS EMPLOYERS ENDOWMENTS EQUALITY EXCLUSION FAMILIES FAMILY MEMBERS FEMALE CHILDREN FOOD COMPONENTS FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA FOOD EXPENDITURE GENDER GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES HEALTH EXPENDITURES HIV HOUSEHOLD BUDGET HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY HOUSEHOLD HEAD HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD LEVEL HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS HOUSEHOLD SIZE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY HOUSEHOLDS HOUSING HUMAN CAPITAL HUSBANDS IMPACT OF MIGRATION INCOME CHANGES INCOME GAINS INCOME GROWTH INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS INEQUALITY INTERNATIONAL BANK INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION KINSHIP LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LEVEL OF CONSUMPTION LIVING CONDITIONS LIVING STANDARDS LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MARITAL STATUS MIGRANT MIGRANTS MIGRATION MIGRATION PROCESS MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MOTHER NUMBER OF CHILDREN NUMBER OF PEOPLE PEER GROUPS PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION POLICY MAKERS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POOR AREAS POPULATION GROWTH POVERTY DYNAMICS POVERTY LINE POVERTY RATE POVERTY RATES POVERTY REDUCTION PROGRESS PULL FACTORS PUSH FACTORS REFUGEE REMITTANCES REMOTE AREAS RESPECT RETURN MIGRATION RURAL AREA RURAL AREAS RURAL TRANSFORMATION RURAL VILLAGES SCHOOLING SEX SOCIAL FACTORS SOCIAL NETWORKS SOCIAL NORMS SOURCE OF INCOME SPOUSE SUBSISTENCE TEENS TOTAL CONSUMPTION TRADITIONAL VALUES UNEMPLOYMENT URBAN AREAS URBAN CENTER URBAN CENTERS VILLAGE WAGE DIFFERENTIALS WAGES WAR WOMAN YOUNG ADULTS YOUNG MALE
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Washington, DC: World Bank
Africa | Tanzania
2012-05-22T22:25:13Z | 2012-05-22T22:25:13Z | 2008-12

This study explores the extent to which migration has contributed to improved living standards of individuals in Tanzania. Using longitudinal data on individuals, the authors estimate the impact of migration on consumption growth between 1991 and 2004. The analysis addresses concerns about heterogeneity and unobservable factors correlated with both income changes and the decision to migrate. The findings show that migration adds 36 percentage points to consumption growth, during a period of considerable growth in consumption. These results are robust to numerous tests and alternative specifications. Unpacking the findings, the analysis finds that moving out of agriculture is correlated with much higher growth than staying in agriculture, although growth is always higher in any sector if one physically moves. Economic mobility is strongly linked to geographic mobility. The puzzle is why more people do not move if returns to geographic mobility are high. The evidence is consistent with models in which exit barriers are set by home communities (through social and family norms) that prevent migration of certain categories of people.

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