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Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study

Ethiopia : Urban Labor Markets, Challenges and Prospects, Volume 1. Synthesis Report

ACCESS TO MARKETS ACCESS TO SERVICES ACTIVE LABOUR ACTIVE LABOUR MARKET ACTIVE LABOUR MARKET POLICIES ADULT WOMEN AGE GROUP AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AGRICULTURE AVERAGE WAGES BRAIN DRAIN CAPITAL MARKETS CHILD LABOUR CITY POPULATION COMPARATOR COUNTRIES DATA SETS DECENTRALIZATION DEREGULATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DISAGGREGATED ANALYSIS DISEQUILIBRIUM DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE DROUGHT ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC DIVERSIFICATION ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC STATISTICS ECONOMIC STRUCTURES EDUCATED PEOPLE EDUCATION LEVEL EDUCATIONAL LEVEL EDUCATIONAL LEVELS EMPLOYMENT CREATION EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT PERFORMANCE EXPORTS FACTOR MARKETS FEMALE PARTICIPATION FERTILITY FERTILITY RATES FIRING COSTS FIRM LEVEL FIRM SIZE FOOD POLICY GDP GOVERNMENT CAPACITY GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HOUSEHOLD HEADS ILLITERACY INCOME INDIVIDUAL DECISIONS INDUSTRIAL SECTOR INDUSTRIALIZATION INFORMAL ECONOMY INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT INFORMAL SECTOR INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS INFORMATION SYSTEM INTERNAL MIGRATION INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION JOB CREATION JOB SECURITY JOBS JOBS CREATION LABOUR LABOUR FORCE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOUR FORCE SKILL LABOUR MARKET INFORMATION LABOUR MARKET INSTITUTIONS LABOUR MARKET INTERVENTIONS LABOUR MARKET OUTCOMES LABOUR MARKET SITUATION LABOUR MARKETS LABOUR STANDARDS LABOUR SUPPLY LARGE CITIES LOCAL AUTHORITIES MANPOWER MARGINAL TAX MARGINAL TAX RATE MARKET ECONOMY MEDIUM TERM MIGRANTS MIGRATION MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS NATIONAL POLICY NATIONAL POLICY MAKERS NEGATIVE IMPACT NET EMPLOYMENT OCCUPATION OCCUPATIONS OLDER WOMEN OPEN UNEMPLOYMENT PAYING JOBS PERSISTENT POVERTY POLICY IMPLICATIONS POLICY LEVEL POLICY MAKERS POLICY OPTIONS POLICY RESEARCH POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION SIZE POVERTY ASSESSMENT POVERTY INCIDENCE POVERTY LINE POVERTY REDUCTION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPER PRIVATE FIRMS PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIVITY PRIVATE SECTORS PRIVATE SERVICES PRO-POOR PRO-POOR GROWTH PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRESS PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT PULL FACTORS RAPID GROWTH REFORM EFFORT REGIONAL AVERAGES REMITTANCES REPLACEMENT LEVEL REPRODUCTIVE AGE RURAL RURAL AREAS RURAL DEVELOPMENT RURAL HOUSEHOLDS RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE RURAL POPULATION RURAL POVERTY RURAL POVERTY RATES RURAL TOWNS SAFETY NETS SECTORAL COMPOSITION SERVICE DELIVERY SERVICE PROVIDERS SERVICES CATEGORY SKILLED WORKERS SMALL ENTERPRISES SOCIAL AFFAIRS STRATEGIC PRIORITIES STRATEGIC PRIORITY SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TARGETING TAXATION TOTAL EMPLOYMENT TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES TRANSITION PROCESS UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT DURATIONS UNEMPLOYMENT RATE UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNMET DEMAND URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS URBAN AREAS URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN EMPLOYMENT URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN MIGRATION URBAN POVERTY URBAN WOMEN URBANIZATION VALUE ADDED VOCATIONAL EDUCATION VULNERABLE GROUPS WAGE GAP WORKER WORKERS WORKFORCE WORKING CONDITIONS WORKING POOR YOUNG PEOPLE YOUTH EMPLOYMENT YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT RATES
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Washington, DC
Africa | East Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa | Ethiopia
2012-06-14T15:39:13Z | 2012-06-14T15:39:13Z | 2007-03

This report focuses on a central element of Ethiopia's challenge: the urban labor market. The headlines, which are detailed in the report, are dramatic, and include the following: open unemployment has been persistently high and average duration is long, though recent trends suggest improved performance. There is a significant segmentation-two relatively privileged sector in the public and formal private sectors, a massive informal sector and a large stock of unemployed. Individual transitions across these states have increased over time, but remain relatively limited. Formal sector employment in urban areas is dominated by the state and manufacturing sector employment remains among the lowest in the world. The majority of those who are working in urban areas are engaged in informal sector activity, typically as a last resort but also as a persistent state. Average wages are low, especially for the unskilled and in the informal sector, but productivity is also very low. Women are especially disadvantaged in the labor market-and typically face worse outcomes with higher levels of unemployment, lower wages, and a greater concentration in the informal sector. Many youth seem to enter the labor market through low quality jobs in the informal sector or into unemployment. The structure of this report is as follows. Volume I synthesizes the emerging findings and policy implications while Volume 2 presents a series of thematic chapters which summarize the underlying background work. In this volume the next chapter sets the stage for the analysis by clarifying the metrics of the key labor market indicators. Chapter 3 looks at the structure of urban labor markets and what has hindered their ability to generate jobs despite the acceleration of growth in the last few years. Chapter 4 focuses on the challenge of urban unemployment, while Chapter 5 looks at the effects of migration on urban labor markets. The final chapter in this volume reviews the emerging policy agenda.

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