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Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper

Informality and Protection from Health Shocks : Lessons from Yemen

ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES AGED BREASTFEEDING CAPITA HEALTH EXPENDITURE CASUAL EMPLOYMENT CATASTROPHIC EXPENDITURE CHILD BENEFIT CHILD HEALTH CONTRACTUAL ARRANGEMENTS DEATHS DELIVERY OF HEALTH SERVICES DISABILITY BENEFITS DISPLACED WORKERS ECONOMIC CRISIS ECONOMIC DOWNTURNS ECONOMIC POLICY ECONOMIC REVIEW EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT STATUS ESTIMATED PROBABILITY EXERCISES EXTERNAL SHOCKS FAMILIES FOOD CONSUMPTION FORMAL EMPLOYMENT HEALTH CARE HEALTH ECONOMICS HEALTH EXPENDITURE HEALTH EXPENDITURES HEALTH FINANCING HEALTH INDICATORS HEALTH INFORMATION HEALTH INSURANCE HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME HEALTH OUTCOMES HEALTH PROFESSIONALS HEALTH SECTOR HEALTH SERVICE HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY HEALTH SERVICE PROVIDER HEALTH SERVICES HEALTH SYSTEM HOURLY WAGE HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD SIZE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY HOUSEHOLD WELFARE HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RESOURCES ILLNESS IMMUNIZATION INCOME INCOME COUNTRIES INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOME HOUSEHOLDS INCOME LOSS INCOME LOSSES INCOME RISKS INFORMAL ECONOMY INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT INFORMAL SAFETY NETS INFORMAL SECTOR INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS INFORMAL WORKERS INSURANCE INSURANCE COVERAGE INSURANCE SYSTEM JOB DURATION JOB LOSS JOB LOSSES JOB SEARCH JOB SEARCH PROCESS JOBS LABOR ECONOMICS LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS LABOR MARKET INDICATORS LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES LABOR MARKET SEGMENTATION LABOR MARKETS LABOR MOBILITY LABOR OFFICE LABOR ORGANIZATION LABOR POLICY LABOR SUPPLY LABOUR LABOUR RELATIONS LACK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LAYOFF LIMITED ACCESS LIVING CONDITIONS LOW INCOME MACROECONOMIC SHOCKS MALNUTRITION MARKET WAGE MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE MEDICAL SERVICE MOBILITY OF LABOR MORBIDITY MORTALITY NATIONAL HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN NUTRITION OCCUPATION OCCUPATIONS PENSION PENSIONS POCKET EXPENDITURE POCKET EXPENDITURES POCKET PAYMENT POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLIO POLITICAL ECONOMY POOR PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY OBJECTIVE PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE TRANSFER PRIVATE TRANSFERS PROBABILITY PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC HEALTH SPENDING PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS PUBLIC TRANSFERS RESOURCE ALLOCATION RISK COPING RISK POOLING RURAL WORKERS SAFETY NET SAVINGS SELF EMPLOYED SELF EMPLOYED WORKERS SELF EMPLOYMENT SELF PROTECTION SELF-INSURANCE SERVICE PROVIDER SHADOW ECONOMIES SHADOW ECONOMY SHARE OF HEALTH EXPENDITURE SHARE OF HEALTH SPENDING SHOCK SKILLED WORKERS SMOKING SOCIAL ASSISTANCE SOCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE SOCIAL INSURANCE SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS SOCIAL PROTECTION SOCIAL SECURITY TAXATION TRANSFER INCOME TRANSITION ECONOMIES TUBERCULOSIS UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE URBAN EMPLOYMENT WAGE DIFFERENTIALS WAGE EMPLOYMENT WAGE GAP WAGE PREMIUM WAGE RATE WAGE RATES WAGE WORKER WAGE WORKERS WAR WATER SUPPLY WORK EXPERIENCE WORKERS
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Middle East and North Africa | Middle East and North Africa | Middle East | Yemen, Republic of
2012-03-19T18:03:42Z | 2012-03-19T18:03:42Z | 2011-08-01

The informal sector is generally believed to be more vulnerable to various risks due to limited access to social insurance, but little empirical evidence exists to support this statement. This paper examines the relationship between informality and protection from health risks in Yemen. The formal sector, when defined based on pension coverage, largely overlaps with public employment where the better educated, more experienced, and better informed tend to work. The results indicate that, even after accounting for socio-economic status, water supply and quality conditions, risky behavior patterns, and unobserved heterogeneity, formal sector households have better accessibility and affordability to health service. This may in part explain better health outcomes among formal households, although large heterogeneity across regions (urban/rural) exists. However, the role of the existing health insurance is found to be unclear. The findings reconfirm the importance of policies that promote universal access to health service and a risk pooling avenue delinked from employment types as well as healthy living conditions and lifestyles.

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