Guinea-Bissau is highly dependent on international trade even when compared to other nations of its size and income level. However, it is equally clear that the country could derive far more benefit from its international trade opportunities than it does at the present time. This study examines how to do this, looking not only at trade policy, the investment climate, and infrastructure, but also five key sectors where specific opportunities exist. There are three recommendations which stand out as having a particularly important and pervasive effect on trade and its potential role in raising incomes and reducing poverty. Indeed, they can be regarded as preconditions for significant progress. Eliminating the bureaucratic obstacles to doing business is a prerequisite for any growth in private investment in the country. Guinea-Bissau ranks near the bottom of the World Bank's annual Survey of Doing Business, reflecting the extremely difficult bureaucratic and legal maze that must be dealt with by any entrepreneur seeking to operate a business in the country. This situation not only militates against private investment in any but resource extraction industries, but also makes even the simplest import/export operation an exercise in bureaucratic navigation. It is of primary importance that the job of formulating and implementing economic policy be put on a more stable and long term basis The extreme instability in Guinea-Bissau's government has meant that cabinet ministers and lower officials change on an annual or even more frequent basis. This situation makes long term planning and sustained implementation virtually impossible and the formulation of coherent policy equally difficult.