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Fertility Decline in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1980-2006 : A Case Study

ABORTION ACCESS TO EDUCATION ACCESS TO FAMILY PLANNING ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS TO PRIMARY HEALTH CARE ADOLESCENT FERTILITY ADOLESCENT GIRLS ADOLESCENTS ADULT LITERACY AGE AT MARRIAGE AGE DISTRIBUTION AGE OF MARRIAGE AGED BASIC EDUCATION BASIC HEALTH CARE BIRTH ATTENDANTS BIRTH CONTROL BREASTFEEDING CENSUS OF POPULATION CHILD CARE CHILD HEALTH CHILD MORTALITY CHILDBEARING CHILDBIRTH CHILDREN PER WOMAN CLINICS CONDOM CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE CONTRACEPTIVE SUPPLIES CONTRACEPTIVE USE DECISION MAKING DEMAND FOR FAMILY PLANNING DEMAND FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF POPULATION DEPENDENCY RATIOS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT POLICIES DIPHTHERIA DIVORCE EARLY MARRIAGE ECONOMIC OBSTACLES EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EXTRAMARITAL SEX FAMILIES FAMILY PLANNING FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAM FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES FAMILY SIZE FEMALE LABOR FORCE FEMALE STERILIZATION FERTILITY DECLINE FERTILITY LEVELS FERTILITY RATE FERTILITY SURVEY FERTILITY TRANSITION FERTILITY TRENDS FIRST BIRTH FIRST MARRIAGE FIRST PREGNANCY FORMAL EDUCATION FORMS OF CONTRACEPTION GENDER ROLES GOVERNMENT POLICIES HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS HEALTH CARE SERVICES HEALTH CENTERS HEALTH COALITION HEALTH EDUCATION HEALTH INDICATORS HEALTH INSURANCE HEALTH MANAGEMENT HEALTH POLICY HEALTH SERVICES HEALTH SYSTEMS HEALTH WORKERS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HYGIENE IMMUNIZATION IMPACT ON FERTILITY INFANT INFANT MORTALITY INFANT MORTALITY RATE INFERTILITY INTERNATIONAL WOMEN INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION IUD LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LARGE FAMILIES LARGER FAMILIES LAWS LEGAL ABORTION LEVELS OF EDUCATION LEVELS OF FERTILITY LIFE EXPECTANCY LIMITED RESOURCES LITERACY RATES LIVE BIRTHS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT LOWER FERTILITY MALE CONDOMS MANAGEMENT OF POPULATION MARRIAGE AGE MARRIED WOMEN MATERNAL HEALTH MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES MATERNAL MORTALITY MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO MATERNITY LEAVE MEASLES MEDICAL EDUCATION METHOD OF CONTRACEPTION MIDWIFE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MINISTRY OF HEALTH MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE USE MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES MODERN METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION MORTALITY NATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING NATURAL RESOURCES NEONATAL MORTALITY NEWBORN NUMBER OF BIRTHS NURSES NUTRITION OLDER WOMEN OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES PARADIGM SHIFT PATIENTS PHYSICIANS PILOT PROJECTS POLYGAMY POPULATION ACTION POPULATION ACTION INTERNATIONAL POPULATION CONTROL POPULATION COUNCIL POPULATION EDUCATION POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION GROWTH RATE POPULATION POLICY POPULATION SIZE POPULATION STUDIES POSTNATAL CARE PREGNANCY PREGNANT WOMEN PRENATAL CARE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SYSTEM PRIMARY SCHOOLS PROGRESS PUBERTY PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC POLICY QUALITY OF CARE RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS RELIGIOUS LEADERS RELIGIOUS PRACTICES REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH RURAL AREAS RURAL POPULATION RURAL WOMEN SECOND GENERATION PROBLEMS SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SERVICE PROVIDERS SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS SOCIAL MARKETING SOCIAL STATUS SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL SYSTEMS SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS STATE UNIVERSITY STERILIZATION TETANUS TRADITIONAL PRACTICES UNEMPLOYMENT UNITED NATIONS POPULATION DIVISION UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND URBAN AREAS URBAN CENTERS URBAN POPULATIONS URBAN WOMEN URBANIZATION USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES VASECTOMY VITAL STATISTICS WAR WORK ENVIRONMENT WORKERS WORKFORCE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION YOUNG COUPLES
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Iran, Islamic Republic of
2017-06-30T15:44:07Z | 2017-06-30T15:44:07Z | 2010-05

Despite its volatile history, the Islamic Republic of Iran has performed well on social indicators, especially in providing basic services such as health care and education. Iran's fertility decline may have proceeded in two stages, the first beginning in the late 1960s. The Iranian government introduced a family planning program during the 1960s with explicit health and demographic objectives. Between 1967 and 1977, fertility declined-mainly in urban areas-to an average of 4 children per woman. Although the family planning program continued after the 1979 Islamic revolution, it was suspended after war broke out with Iraq in 1980. During the war, the government pursued a pronatalist population policy, including incentives for childbearing. The fertility decline coincided with improvements in primary and secondary education, possibly affecting the rapid decline in adolescent fertility during 1997-2006, especially when compared to other Middle East and North Africa region countries. Today regional disparities in fertility exist with higher fertility in less developed districts. Yet Iran's example shows how good public policy interventions in health (including family planning) and education can reduce fertility and contribute to human development.

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