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Working Paper

Social Safety Nets in Fragile States : A Community-Based School Feeding Program in Togo

ACCESS TO EDUCATION ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS ADULTS AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AGRICULTURE AVAILABILITY OF FOOD AVERAGE NUMBER OF STUDENTS BAKING BEER BENEFICIARY BREAD BREWING CALCIUM CAPACITY BUILDING CASSAVA CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHRONIC POVERTY CHRONICALLY POOR CLEAN DRINKING WATER COMMUNITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CONDIMENTS CONFLICT COOKING COPING STRATEGIES CORN COST EFFECTIVENESS DEMAND FOR FOOD DRINKING WATER DROPOUT RATE ECONOMIC CRISIS ECONOMIC SECURITY ECONOMIC STRESS EDUCATION FOR ALL EDUCATION SERVICES EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ENROLMENT RATE EXTERNAL RESOURCES EXTERNAL SHOCKS FEMALE PARTICIPATION FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES FIRST GRADE FOOD AID FOOD AVAILABILITY FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD DELIVERY FOOD HANDLING FOOD INSECURITY FOOD INTAKE FOOD ITEMS FOOD NEEDS FOOD POLICY FOOD PRICE FOOD PRICING FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD PRODUCTS FOOD QUALITY FOOD SAFETY FOOD SECURITY FOOD SUPPLY FOOD TRANSFERS FOODS FORMAL SCHOOL FRUIT GENDER GENDER EQUITY GOVERNMENT CAPACITY HEALTH CARE HEALTH INSURANCE HEALTH ORGANIZATION HEALTH PROGRAMS HEALTH SERVICES HEALTH SYSTEM HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION HOUSEHOLD FOOD INSECURITY HOUSEHOLD NEEDS HOUSEHOLD NUTRITION HOUSEHOLD SIZE HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HYGIENE IFPRI INCIDENCE OF POVERTY INCLUSION INCOME INCOME REPLACEMENT INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES INFORMAL COPING MECHANISMS INFORMAL MECHANISMS INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY LEARNING MAINSTREAMING MAIZE MALNUTRITION MEAL MEAL PREPARATION MEAT MINIMUM WAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN NUMBER OF REPEATERS NUMBER OF SCHOOL CHILDREN NUMBER OF SCHOOLS NUMBER OF STUDENTS NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS NUTRITIONAL DEFICITS NUTRITIVE VALUE OKRA OLDER CHILDREN PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS PARTICIPATION OF GIRLS PASTA PAYMENT OF TEACHERS PEANUTS PEPPERS POOR POOR CHILDREN POOR HOUSEHOLD POVERTY INCIDENCE POVERTY LEVELS POVERTY LINE POVERTY REDUCTION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPER POVERTY STATUS PRIMARY COMPLETION PRIMARY COMPLETION RATE PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS PRODUCTIVE ASSETS PROTECTION POLICY PROTEIN PUBLIC PENSIONS PUBLIC RESOURCE RETENTION RATE RICE RISK MANAGEMENT RURAL RURAL AREAS RURAL HOUSEHOLD RURAL POPULATION RURAL REGIONS RURAL SCHOOLS RURAL VILLAGE SAFE WATER SAFETY NET PROGRAMS SAFETY NET SYSTEMS SANITATION SAVINGS SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SCHOOL CALENDAR SCHOOL COMMUNITY SCHOOL DAYS SCHOOL EDUCATION SCHOOL ENROLMENT SCHOOL EQUIPMENT SCHOOL FEEDING SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAMS SCHOOL FEES SCHOOL FURNITURE SCHOOL LEVEL SCHOOL LUNCH SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL MEAL SCHOOL OPERATIONS SCHOOL PARTICIPATION SCHOOL PROGRAM SCHOOL WALLS SCHOOL YEAR SCHOOL-AGE SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN SCHOOLS SECONDARY SCHOOL SERVICE PROVIDERS SHARECROPPING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS SOCIAL BENEFITS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL PROTECTION SOCIAL SAFETY NET SOCIAL SECURITY SOCIETY SOCIOECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE STAPLE FOODS SUBSIDIZING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TARGETING TEACHER TEACHING TOMATOES TRANSFER OF RESOURCES TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSAL EDUCATION VEGETABLES VILLAGE LEVEL VILLAGE SCHOOL VILLAGE TEACHER VITAMINS VULNERABLE HOUSEHOLDS WELFARE PROGRAMS WFP WHEAT WORLD FOOD PROGRAM
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Togo
2017-06-01T20:55:43Z | 2017-06-01T20:55:43Z | 2011-08

This paper reviews a small community-based school feeding program launched in Togo in response to the 2007/08 food price crisis. The discussion focuses on the operational and policy lessons emerging from the program, to better understand opportunities for scale up and sustainability in the future. A focus of the discussion is how to build safety nets in fragile states and in situations where there is weak and fragmented government capacity to deliver services to disadvantaged and vulnerable communities. In this context school feeding is explored as an entry point through the use of informal mechanisms based on the commitment of communities and civil society. The analysis is premised on quantitative and qualitative analysis carried out at program sites. The discussion identifies the operational challenges and opportunities in customizing school feeding within Togo with an emphasis on targeting, cost effectiveness, procurement and institutional aspects. Evidence on the economic and social benefits of the program is also presented, focusing on dietary impacts, as well as household and local community effects. The objective of the discussion is to share lessons learned from evaluation findings so that they can be useful for implementing similar programs in the future in Togo itself or in other countries. Findings from the analysis highlight the possibilities of implementing school feeding in a low capacity setting and the scope for using the program as a springboard towards a broader and more comprehensive social safety net.

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