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The Human Resources for Health Crisis in Zambia : An Outcome of Health Worker Entry, Exit, and Performance within the National Health Labor Market

AGGRESSIVE AGING AID AIDS RELIEF ANTENATAL CARE BEDS BIRTH ATTENDANT BLOOD SAMPLES BULLETIN CENSUSES CHILD MORTALITY CHILDBIRTH CITIES CITIZENS CLINICS COMMUNICABLE DISEASES COTS COUNSELING COUNTRY OF ORIGIN DEATH RATE DEATH RATES DEATHS DECISION MAKING DENTAL ASSISTANT DENTIST DENTISTRY DENTISTS DIAGNOSIS DIARRHEA DIARRHEAL DISEASES DISSEMINATION DOCTOR DOCTORS DROPOUT EMERGENCY PLAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ESSENTIAL DRUGS EXHAUSTION EXPENDITURES EXTERNAL MIGRATION FAMILIES FEMALE FEVER GENDER GENERAL PRACTITIONERS GROSS NATIONAL INCOME HEALTH CARE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT HEALTH CARE SERVICES HEALTH CENTERS HEALTH FACILITIES HEALTH MANAGEMENT HEALTH ORGANIZATION HEALTH OUTCOMES HEALTH PLANNING HEALTH POSTS HEALTH PROFESSIONAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS HEALTH RISKS HEALTH SECTOR HEALTH SERVICE HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY HEALTH SERVICE PROVIDERS HEALTH SERVICE PROVISION HEALTH SERVICES HEALTH SPECIALIST HEALTH SYSTEM HEALTH SYSTEMS HEALTH TRAINING HEALTH WORKFORCE HIV HIV INFECTION HIV/AIDS HOSPITAL HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT HOSPITALS HUMAN RESOURCES ILLNESS ILLNESSES IMMIGRATION INCOME INFORMATION SYSTEM INTERNAL MIGRATION INTERVENTION JOB OPPORTUNITIES LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LABORATORY WORKERS LEGAL STATUS LIVE BIRTHS LIVING CONDITIONS MALARIA MALARIAL DRUGS MATERNAL HEALTH MATERNAL MORTALITY MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO MEDICAL ASSISTANCE MEDICAL DOCTORS MEDICAL PRACTICE MEDICAL SCHOOL MEDICAL SCHOOLS MEDICAL TREATMENT MIDWIFE MIDWIVES MIGRATION MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MINISTRY OF HEALTH MORBIDITY MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY MORTALITY MORTALITY RATE MORTALITY RATES MOTHER MOTHER-TO-CHILD MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION MOTHERS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN NATIONAL LEGISLATION NATIONAL LEVEL NEONATAL DEATH NUMBER OF WORKERS NURSE NURSES NURSING NURSING HOMES NUTRITION NUTRITIONISTS PARASITIC DISEASES PATIENTS PERINATAL MORTALITY PERSONAL COMMUNICATION PHARMACIST PHARMACISTS PHARMACY PHYSICIAN PHYSICIANS PHYSIOTHERAPISTS PNEUMONIA POPULATION DENSITY POPULATION GROWTH PREGNANCIES PREGNANCY PREMATURE DEATH PREVALENCE PRIMARY CARE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PRIVATE PHARMACIES PROBABILITY PROGRESS PROVINCIAL HOSPITALS PROVISION OF ASSISTANCE PSYCHIATRY PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS PUBLIC HOSPITALS PUBLIC SERVICE RADIOGRAPHY RESOURCE NEEDS ROOMS RURAL AREAS SCHOOL HEALTH SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SKILLED WORKERS SPECIALISTS STILLBIRTH SURGEONS THERAPIST THERAPY TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES TROPICAL MEDICINE TUBERCULOSIS UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY UNEMPLOYMENT UNIVERSAL ACCESS UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO TREATMENT UNMET DEMAND URBAN AREAS USER FEES WAR WORK ENVIRONMENT WORKERS WORKING CONDITIONS WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
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World Bank
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa | Southern Africa | Zambia
2012-03-19T09:03:41Z | 2012-04-04T07:43:58Z | 2012-03-19T09:03:41Z | 2012-04-04T07:43:58Z | 2011-04-26

This report compiles recent evidence on the Zambian health labor market and provides some baseline information on human resources for health (HRH) to help the government address its HRH challenges. Rather than focusing on making policy recommendations, the report is designed to be a source book to benefit and fuel discussions related to HRH in Zambia. Most of the data presented in the report covers the period 2005-08. The report analyzes the national health labor market to better understand the available evidence related to the stock, distribution, and performance of HRH in Zambia (that is, the HRH outcomes). It aims to explain those HRH outcomes by mapping, assessing, and analyzing pre-service education and labor market dynamics, that is, the flow of health workers into, within, and out of the health labor market, as well as the core factors influencing these dynamics. Finally, this report examines the issue of access and equity of HRH. It finds that even if health workers are available, in either urban or rural areas, and performing adequately, the wealthy in Zambia have better access to services than the poor. This situation is found in most if not all other countries. The report finds that as far as access to health workers is concerned, the poor generally loose out. It also reveals that even if health workers are available, wealthier segments of the population often continue to have better access to health workers than poorer segments. Wealthier women have the highest probability of receiving any antenatal care. There is an even steeper pro-rich gradient in delivery attendance in Zambia. In contrast to antenatal care, there is little variation across socioeconomic quintiles among those seeking medical treatment for children with diarrhea or cough and fever. The poor are slightly more likely to be visited by a health worker and receive certain services during visits. The factors linked to these variations in use of services remain to be examined (they could be linked to expense, fear of receiving care from an individual belonging to a higher social stratum, or different gender, and so forth). Either way, they should be taken into consideration when planning to improve access for the poor to health care services and providers.

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