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Working Paper

Holding on to Monrovia : Protecting a Fragile Peace through Economic Governance and Short-Term Employment

ALLIANCE AMBASSADOR ANTI-CORRUPTION ANTICORRUPTION ANTICORRUPTION COMMISSION ARMED CONFLICTS AUTHORITY BASIC SERVICES BATTLE BEST PRACTICE BEST PRACTICES BILATERAL AGENCIES BUREAUCRACY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY BUILDING CITIZENS CIVIL CONFLICT CIVIL SERVANT CIVIL SERVANTS CIVIL SOCIETY CIVIL WAR COLLAPSE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION COMPETITIVE BIDDING COMPROMISES CONFLICT CONSENSUS CONSTITUENCIES CORRUPT CORRUPT OFFICIALS CORRUPT PRACTICES CORRUPTION CORRUPTION INVESTIGATION CRIME CRIMINAL DEMOBILIZATION DEMOCRACY DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS DIPLOMACY DISARMAMENT DISENGAGEMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ELECTIONS EMBASSY EMBEZZLEMENT EMPLOYMENT CREATION EMPLOYMENT GENERATION EX-COMBATANT EX-COMBATANTS EXCOMBATANTS EXECUTION EXPENDITURE EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT EXTERNAL DEBT EXTERNAL INTERVENTION FIGHTING FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL RESOURCES FINANCIAL SYSTEMS FISCAL POLICY FOREIGN INVESTORS FOREIGN POLICY FOUNDATIONS FRAUD FRONTIER GOOD GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE REFORM GOVERNANCE REFORMS GRAFT HEAD OF STATE HEADS OF STATE HUMAN RESOURCES IMF IMMIGRANTS INCOME INFANT INFANT MORTALITY INFANT MORTALITY RATE INITIATIVE INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONAL REFORM INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT JOB CREATION JUDICIAL REFORM JUDICIARY LACK OF CAPACITY LEADERSHIP LEGISLATIVE ELECTIONS LEGITIMACY LIVE BIRTHS LOCAL AUTHORITIES LOCAL ECONOMY LOW INCOME COUNTRIES MALFEASANCE MANDATES MASS UNEMPLOYMENT MATERNAL MORTALITY MEETING MERCENARY MILITARY INTERVENTION MINISTERS MODALITIES MONOPOLY NATIONAL INTEREST NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY NATIONS NEGOTIATION NUMBER OF WOMEN OBSERVERS PEACE PEACEKEEPERS PEACEKEEPING POLICE POLITICAL INFLUENCE POPULATION GROUPS PRACTITIONERS PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS PRINT MEDIA PROGRESS PROJECT MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AGENCIES PUBLIC DEBT PUBLIC FINANCES PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC INFORMATION PUBLIC MANAGEMENT PUBLIC PROCUREMENT PUBLIC RESOURCES PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTABILITY PUBLIC SPENDING RADIO REBEL RECONCILIATION RECONSTRUCTION REFUGEES REHABILITATION REPATRIATION REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT RETURNEES ROAD ROADS RULE OF LAW SANCTIONS SANITATION SELF-RELIANCE SERVICE DELIVERY SKILLED WORKERS SOCIAL SECTOR SOVEREIGNTY STATE APPARATUS STATE ASSETS STATE INSTITUTIONS STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES SUPPLY NETWORKS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TRANSPARENCY TREATY UNDP UNEMPLOYMENT VICTIMS VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE VIOLENCE VULNERABLE GROUPS WAR WEAPONS WORLD DEVELOPMENT YOUNG MEN YOUTH
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Liberia
2017-06-27T16:14:20Z | 2017-06-27T16:14:20Z | 2011-07

A key driver of Liberia's re-emergence from utter destruction, between 2004 and 2008, was the willingness of international actors to accept the responsibility and risks associated with stabilization. This was accomplished by confronting these risks directly, even at the cost of temporarily filling institutional voids and sharing sovereignty with the Liberian transitional authorities. The main international diplomatic representations and aid agencies on the ground came to accept from their varying perspectives that peace in Liberia was fragile and that the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement (ACPA) of September 2003 was only the beginning of a protracted stabilization effort. The domestic market for consultants and goods did not exist, requiring the World Bank to innovate with new modes of delivering assistance. Thus, peace consolidation compelled international partners to simultaneously (i) prevent full state capture by corrupt elites in advance of elections and (ii) secure a peace dividend to vulnerable groups which could most directly threaten peace (young ex-combatants and refugees). Building on a solid UN-World Bank partnership, the international community found the internal consensus to address each of the two complementary peace consolidation challenges, adopting two highly innovative instruments: (i) an anti-corruption scheme labeled Governance and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP), involving such robust measures as expatriate co-signing authority, and (ii) a short-term employment-generation scheme now known as roads-with- United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), centered on a rare direct collaboration between the Bank and the engineering units of the UN's military peacekeeping force on the ground. This paper examines these two instruments more closely, in their successes and failures as well as from the perspective of temporary shared sovereignty and co-production.

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