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Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper

The Household Enterprise Sector in Tanzania : Why It Matters and Who Cares

ACCESS TO CREDIT ACCESS TO FINANCE ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES ACCESS TO FORMAL CREDIT ACCESS TO LOANS AGE DISTRIBUTION AGE GROUP AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURAL INCOME AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BANK ACCESS BANK ACCOUNT BANK CHARGES BANK CREDIT BANK LENDING BANK OF TANZANIA BARRIERS TO ENTRY BORROWING BUSINESS ACTIVITIES BUSINESS ACTIVITY BUSINESS ASSOCIATION BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS BUSINESS CENTERS BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY BUSINESS RISK BUSINESS STRATEGY CAPITALIZATION CASH FLOW COLLATERALS COMMERCIAL BANK COMMERCIAL BANKS COMMUNITY BANK COMMUNITY BANKS CORRUPTION CRAFTSMEN CREDIT ASSOCIATION CREDIT CONSTRAINT CREDIT COOPERATIVE CREDIT COOPERATIVES CREDIT GROUP CREDIT NEEDS CREDIT PROGRAMS CREDIT RISK CREDITORS CREDITS CROSS-SECTIONAL EVIDENCE CURRENT ACCOUNT DAUNTING TASK DEBT DEFAULTERS DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE DEPOSIT DEPOSITS DEVELOPMENT BANK DEVELOPMENT POLICY DIVERSIFICATION DRIVERS DRUGS EARNING EARNING CAPACITY EARNINGS EARNINGS REGRESSIONS ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES EDUCATION LEVEL EMPLOYEE EMPLOYER EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPOWERMENT ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISE GROWTH ENTREPRENEUR ENTREPRENEURS ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EXCHANGE RATE FARM ENTERPRISE FARM ENTERPRISES FARMER FARMERS FEMALE EMPLOYMENT FINANCES FINANCIAL INSTITUTION FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL SERVICE FINANCIAL SERVICES FINANCIAL SUPPORT FIRM SURVEYS FORM OF COLLATERAL GENDER GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS GOVERNMENT POLICIES GROUP LENDING HOUSEHOLD ACCESS HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISE HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISES HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD SURVEY HOUSEHOLDS HOUSING INFLATION INFORMAL ECONOMY INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT INFORMAL SECTOR INFORMAL TRAINING INFORMAL WORKERS INSURANCE INTEREST RATE INTERNATIONAL BANK INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY JOB CREATION JOB OPPORTUNITIES JOBS LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE SURVEY LABOR MARKET LABOR REGULATIONS LABOR SURVEYS LACK OF ACCESS LACK OF CAPITAL LACK OF CREDIT LAWS LOAN LOAN CONDITIONS LOAN REPAYMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT MALE PARTICIPANT MANDATES MARKET VALUE MERCHANTS MFI MFIS MICRO ENTERPRISES MICROCREDIT MICROFINANCE MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS MIGRANT MIGRATION MONEY TRANSFER MONEYLENDERS NATIONAL COUNCIL NATIONAL STRATEGY NATURAL RESOURCES NEW BUSINESS NEW ENTRANTS NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT NON-FARM SECTOR OCCUPATION OCCUPATIONS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING PENSION FUND PHYSICAL CAPITAL POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER PREVIOUS STUDIES PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY REASON PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIVATE CREDIT PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR WAGE PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTIVITY PROFITABILITY PROGRESS PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT PUBLIC TRANSPORT REAL ESTATE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS REGULATORY OVERSIGHT REGULATORY REGIME REPAYMENT REPAYMENT PERIODS RETIREMENT RISK OF DEFAULT RURAL AREAS RURAL BUSINESS RURAL DEVELOPMENT SAVINGS SAVINGS GROUPS SEED MONEY SELF EMPLOYED SELF-EMPLOYMENT SERVANTS SKILL DEVELOPMENT SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SMALL BORROWERS SMALL BUSINESS SMALL BUSINESSES SMALL ENTERPRISE SMALL ENTERPRISES SOCIAL SECURITY SOCIAL SERVICES SOURCE OF CREDIT SOURCE OF INCOME SOURCES OF CREDIT SOURCES OF FINANCE START-UP SUPPLIERS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAX CODE TECHNICAL EDUCATION TOTAL EMPLOYMENT TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRAINING PROGRAMS TRANSPORT UNINCORPORATED BUSINESSES UNION UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS UNPAID WORKERS URBAN AREAS URBANIZATION VILLAGE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION VOUCHERS VULNERABILITY WAGE EMPLOYMENT WAGE SECTOR WAGES WORKER WORKING CAPITAL
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Africa | Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa | East Africa | Tanzania
2012-03-19T18:06:12Z | 2012-03-19T18:06:12Z | 2011-11-01

The household enterprise sector has a significant role in the Tanzanian economy. It employs a larger share of the urban labor force than wage employment, and is increasingly seen as an alternative to agriculture as a source of additional income for rural and urban households. The sector is uniquely placed within the informal sector, where it represents both conditions of informal employment and informal enterprise. This paper presents a case study on Tanzania using a mixed approach by combining both quantitative and qualitative analysis to examine the important role of household enterprises in the labor force of Tanzania, and to identify key factors that influence their productivity. Household enterprise owners are similar to typical labor force participants although primary education appears to be the minimum qualification for household enterprise operators to be successful. Access to location matters -- good, secure location in a marketplace or industrial cluster raises earnings - and access to transport and electricity is found to have a significant effect on earnings as well. In large urban areas, the biggest constraint faced by household enterprises is the lack of access to secure workspace to run the small business. Although lack of credit is a problem across all enterprises in Tanzania, household enterprises are more vulnerable because they are largely left out of the financial sector either as savers or borrowers. Although HEs are part of the livelihood strategies of over half of households in Tanzania, they are ignored in the current development policy frameworks, which emphasize formalization, not productivity. Tanzania has a large number of programs and projects for informal enterprises, but there is no set of policies and program interventions targeted at the household enterprise sector. This gap exacerbates the vulnerability of household enterprises, and reduces their productivity.

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