Egypt's children and youth, representing more than one-third of the country´s population and its future, face several significant challenges, as shown by higher child poverty rates and unequal access to basic services. The objective of this report is three-fold: (i) to analyze the extent of inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children; (ii) to inform government policy on how success in life is influenced by factors predetermined at birth; and (iii) to identify policies and interventions that may contribute to improving equality of opportunity. The underlying premise is that ensuring equality of opportunity entails leveling the playing field in such a way that every child, regardless of the circumstances of his/her birth, will have an equal chance to succeed in life. This report analyzes the extent of provision of equal access to basic opportunities to all children (including healthcare, education, clean water and sanitation), and identifies the main circumstances that affect it and therefore determine human development outcomes. The analysis in this report builds on the concepts and ideas developed in the World Development Report (WDR). The findings are aimed at supporting debates and discussions, within and outside the Government of Egypt, on the need to ensure equality of opportunity, to contribute to the development of policies and institutions for children and youth, and to provide an improved sense of hope and social justice for the future and help build a more equitable society in the post-Mubarak era. The report is structured as follows: section one presents the background and motivation for the study; section two deals with early risk factors and associated health and education outcomes for children; and section three presents the estimates of inequality of opportunity among children. Details about the data sources and various analyses presented are included in the annexes.