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Gender Differences in the Effects of Vocational Training : Constraints on Women and Drop-out Behavior

ACCESS TO SCHOOLING ACCOUNTING ADULTS APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING ATTRITION BARGAINING CAPITAL INVESTMENT CHILDBIRTH CLASSROOM CONDOM CONDOM USE CRAFTSMEN CURRICULA DEPENDENT CHILDREN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT POLICY DROP-OUTS DROPOUT DROPOUT RATES ECONOMICS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ENTREPRENEURSHIP TRAINING EXCESS FERTILITY FAMILY RESPONSIBILITY FAMILY SUPPORT FEMALE PARTICIPANTS FEMALE PARTICIPATION FEMALE YOUTH FORMAL EDUCATION GENDER DIFFERENCES GENDER DIFFERENTIALS GENERAL EDUCATION GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM GIRLS HIGH DROP-OUT RATES HIGH SCHOOL HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD SIZE HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ILLNESS INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION JOB OPPORTUNITIES JOB TRAINING LABOR ECONOMICS LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET POLICY LABOUR LABOUR MARKET LITERACY LOW LEVELS OF EDUCATION MIGRATION MUSLIM WOMEN NATIONAL AIDS NATIONAL AIDS COMMISSION NUMBER OF ADULTS NUMBER OF CHILDREN NUTRITION OCCUPATIONS ORPHANS POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POOR GIRLS PRIMARY SCHOOL PRODUCTIVITY PROGRESS RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR RURAL AREAS SCHOOL CURRICULA SCHOOL DROPOUTS SECONDARY SCHOOL SELF-ASSESSMENT SELF-ESTEEM SEXUAL PARTNER SEXUALLY ACTIVE SKILL ACQUISITION SKILL DEVELOPMENT SKILLS ACQUISITION SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL POLICY SOCIAL PROGRAMS TECHNICAL EDUCATION TECHNICAL SKILLS TRAINEES TRAINING PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION URBAN AREAS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION VOCATIONAL TRAINING VULNERABILITY WAGES WORKFORCE YOUNG AGE YOUNG PEOPLE YOUNG WOMEN YOUNG WORKERS YOUTH YOUTH EMPLOYMENT
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Malawi
2013-09-27T18:12:41Z | 2013-09-27T18:12:41Z | 2013-07

This paper provides experimental evidence on the effects of vocational and entrepreneurial training for Malawian youth, in an environment where access to schooling and formal sector employment is extremely low. It tracks a large fraction of program drop-outs -- a common phenomenon in the training evaluation literature -- and examines the determinants and consequences of dropping out and how it mediates the effects of such programs. The analysis finds that women make decisions in a more constrained environment, and their participation is affected by family obligations. Participation is more expensive for them, resulting in worse training experience. The training results in skills development, continued investment in human capital, and improved well-being, with more positive effects for men, but no improvements in labor market outcomes in the short run.

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