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Working Paper

Market Imperfections Exacerbate the Gender Gap : The Case of Malawi

LIVING STANDARDS EMPLOYMENT HOUSEHOLD SURVEY RIGHTS GENDER SPECIFIC PRODUCTIVITY EFFECTS WAGE GAP PRODUCTION MALE COUNTERPART INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN WAGE DISCRIMINATION LABOR ALLOCATION UNITED NATIONS RURAL LABOR MARKETS INFORMATION SERVICES DISCRIMINATION ELASTICITY POLITICAL ECONOMY EFFECTS LABOR ECONOMICS RURAL LABOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FACTORS OF PRODUCTION PROJECT MARGINAL PRODUCTIVITY FEMALE HEADED HOUSEHOLDS GENDER DISPARITY BUDGET EFFICIENCY WAGES GENDER DIMENSIONS PRESENT VALUE HUMAN RESOURCE LABOR MARKET GENDER GAP DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS LABOR PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY TRANSFERS HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION MARKETS HOUSEHOLD INCOME ORGANIZATIONS GENDER INEQUALITIES GENDER SENSITIVITY STANDARDS LABOR ADULT MALE UTILITY MALE HEADED HOUSEHOLDS CHILD CARE EFFICIENCY FEMALE LABOR DESIGN RESOURCES UNEMPLOYMENT PREVAILING MARKET WAGE FEMALE HEADS LABOR MARKET DISCRIMINATION PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH CONSUMPTION CAPITAL WAGES POLICIES GENDER DIFFERENCES PRODUCTIVITY EFFECT MARKET FAILURES DESCRIPTION PARTICIPATION WAGE INEQUALITY VALUE GENDER FAMILY LABOR RURAL POVERTY WORKING CAPITAL HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES COST WAGE RATE ROLE OF WOMEN HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS TRANSACTION COSTS MARKET ACCESS TO MARKETS RURAL EMPLOYMENT LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTION ECONOMICS PRODUCTION FUNCTION PRODUCTIVITY REGRESSION MANAGEMENT PRODUCTIVITY DECOMPOSITION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WOMEN FARMERS STATE LAND PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN THEORY SECURITY FEMALES INVESTMENT RISK HUMAN RESOURCES HOUSEHOLDS GENDER ANALYSIS EQUALITY PRODUCTIVITY GAP ALLOCATION IMMIGRATION LABOR ALLOCATION DECISIONS SUPPLY PRODUCTIVITY REGRESSIONS WAGE DIFFERENTIALS LABOR SUPPLY PROFIT BORROWING WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE INTERVENTIONS MARRIED WOMEN COMMUNITY GENDER DISCRIMINATION HOUSEHOLD WORK WOMEN LABOUR LABOR MARKETS OUTCOMES FEMALE SERVICE WAGE EMPLOYMENT PRICES MARKET WAGE GENDER EQUALITY INEQUALITY
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Malawi
2015-07-16T15:24:32Z | 2015-07-16T15:24:32Z | 2015-06

This paper hypothesizes that labor and credit market imperfections—by discouraging off-farm income-generating activities and restricting access to inputs, respectively—affect female farm productivity more deeply than male productivity. The paper develops a theoretical model that decomposes the contribution of various market imperfections to the gender productivity gap. The paper shows empirically that agricultural labor productivity is on average 44 percent lower on plots managed by female heads of household than on those managed by male heads. Thirty-four percent of this gap is explained by differences in labor market access and 29 percent by differences in credit access.

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