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Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper

Labor Market Reforms, Growth, and Unemployment in Labor-Exporting Countries in the Middle East and North Africa

ACCOUNTING AGGREGATE DEMAND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ATTRITION BALANCE OF PAYMENTS BARGAINING BARGAINING POWER BARRIERS TO ENTRY BASKET OF GOODS BORROWING CIVIL SERVICE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CORPORATE TAXES COST MINIMIZATION CURRENT EXPENDITURES DEMAND CURVE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION DISGUISED UNEMPLOYMENT DISPOSABLE INCOME DOMESTIC WORKERS ECONOMIC GROWTH EFFICIENCY WAGES ELASTICITY ELASTICITY OF SUBSTITUTION EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT SECURITY EQUATIONS EQUILIBRIUM EXCHANGE RATE EXPENDITURES EXPLICIT CONTRACTS EXPORTS FOREIGN EXCHANGE GDP GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION GROWTH RATE HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT HUMAN CAPITAL IMPORT TARIFFS IMPORTS INCOME INCOME TAXES INTERMEDIATE INPUTS INVESTMENT EXPENDITURES JOB CREATION LABOR COSTS LABOR DEMAND LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE GROWTH LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET POLICIES LABOR MARKET SEGMENTATION LABOR MARKETS LABOR MIGRATION LABOR REGULATIONS LABOR SUPPLY LABOR UNIONS LAYOFFS LEGISLATION MACROECONOMIC EFFECTS MARGINAL BENEFITS MARGINAL COST MARGINAL VALUE MIDDLE EAST MIGRATION MINIMUM WAGE MINIMUM WAGES MORTALITY NEW ENTRANTS NOMINAL WAGES OIL OPEN UNEMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COST PAYROLL TAXES PENSIONS POLITICAL PROCESS POPULATION GROWTH POWER PLANTS PRIVATE GOODS PRODUCERS PRODUCTION FUNCTION PRODUCTION INPUTS PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCTIVITY PROFIT MAXIMIZATION PUBLIC ENTERPRISES PUBLIC GOOD PUBLIC GOODS PUBLIC SERVICES PURCHASING POWER REAL WAGES REGULATORY REGIMES RETAINED EARNINGS RETIREMENT RETURNS TO SCALE RURAL WORKERS SALES TAXES SAVINGS SIDE EFFECTS TAX REVENUE TAX REVENUES TAXATION TOTAL OUTPUT TRADE BALANCE TRADE UNIONS TRANSFER PAYMENTS UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYED WORKERS UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS UNEMPLOYMENT RATE UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNSKILLED LABOR UNSKILLED WORKERS URBAN ECONOMY URBAN WORKERS VALUE ADDED WAGE FLEXIBILITY WAGES
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World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Africa | Europe and Central Asia | Middle East and North Africa
2013-06-26T17:04:39Z | 2013-06-26T17:04:39Z | 2004-01

This paper studies the impact of labor market policies on growth and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The analysis is based on a framework that captures many of the main features of the labor market in these countries. We conduct a variety of policy experiments, including a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public sector wages and employment, an increase in employment subsidies, a reduction in trade unions' bargaining power, and a composite reform program. Our key message is that to foster broad-based growth and job creation in the region, labor market reforms must not be viewed in isolation but rather as a component of a comprehensive program of structural reforms.

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