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Working Paper

Key Characteristics of Employment Regulation in the Middle East and North Africa

ABOLITION OF FORCED LABOR ACTIVE LABOR ACTIVE LABOR MARKET ACTIVE LABOR MARKET POLICIES ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS ADULT WORKERS ADVERSE EFFECTS ANNUAL LEAVE AVERAGE WAGE AVERAGE WAGES BARGAINING AGREEMENT BARGAINING POWER BUSINESS CYCLE CHILD LABOR COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS COLLECTIVE BARGAINING COLLECTIVE DISMISSALS COMPETITIVE MARKET COMPETITIVE PRODUCT MARKET CONTRACT ENFORCEMENT CRISES DISABILITY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS DISMISSAL DISPLACEMENT EARNINGS INEQUALITY ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC SHOCKS ECONOMIC THEORY EMPLOYABILITY EMPLOYEE EMPLOYERS EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATIONS EMPLOYERS ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYMENT EMPLOYMENT CREATION EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT INDICATORS EMPLOYMENT LEVELS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION EMPLOYMENT RATES EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FEMALE EMPLOYMENT FEMALE LABOR FIRING FIRING COST FIRING COSTS FIRM GROWTH FIRST-TIME JOB SEEKER FLEXIBLE EMPLOYMENT FORCED LABOR FOREIGN LABOR FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION HEALTH INSURANCE HIRING HOURS OF WORK HUMAN CAPITAL ILO CONVENTIONS INCOME INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOME SECURITY INCOME SUPPORT INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS INFORMAL ECONOMIES INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT INFORMAL SECTOR INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTERNATIONAL TREATIES JOB CREATION JOB LOSSES JOB PLACEMENT JOB PLACEMENT SERVICES JOB SEARCH JOB SECURITY JOB SEEKERS JOB-SEARCH ACTIVITIES JOBS LABOR CODES LABOR CONTRACTS LABOR COSTS LABOR DEMAND LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOR LAW LABOR LAWS LABOR LEGISLATION LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET ADJUSTMENT LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS LABOR MARKET EXPERIENCE LABOR MARKET FLEXIBILITY LABOR MARKET INDICATORS LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES LABOR MARKET PERFORMANCE LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS LABOR MARKET REFORMS LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS LABOR MARKET SITUATION LABOR MARKETS LABOR MOBILITY LABOR OFFICE LABOR POLICY LABOR PROGRAMS LABOR REGULATION LABOR REGULATIONS LABOR RELATIONS LABOR STANDARDS LABOR SUPPLY LABOR TURNOVER LABOR UNION LABOR UNIONS LAID-OFF WORKERS LAYOFF LAYOFFS LIFE EXPECTANCY LIFELONG LEARNING LIMITED ENFORCEMENT CAPACITY LIVING CONDITIONS LIVING STANDARDS LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT LONGTERM UNEMPLOYMENT LOW EMPLOYMENT MALE WORKER MANDATED BENEFITS MARKET ECONOMY MARKET FAILURES MARKET LIBERALIZATION MARKET WAGE MATERNITY BENEFITS MATERNITY LEAVE MINIMUM WAGE MINIMUM WAGES NET EMPLOYMENT NIGHT WORK OCCUPATION OLDER WORKERS OVERTIME OVERTIME WORK PAID MATERNITY PAID WORKERS PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT PERMANENT WORKERS PERSONNEL POLITICAL ECONOMY POLITICAL PROCESS PRESENT VALUE PRIMARY CONCERN PRIVATE FIRMS PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR FIRM PRIVATE SECTORS PRODUCT MARKET REFORMS PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH PROPERTY RIGHTS PUBLIC SERVICE RECOMMENDATIONS REDUNDANCY REPLACEMENT WORKERS REST PERIOD RIGHT TO ORGANIZE RIGID LABOR MARKETS SAFETY SAFETY NET SAFETY NETS SERVANTS SEVERANCE PAY SEVERANCE PAY SYSTEM SEVERANCE PAYMENTS SKILLED LABOR SOCIAL COHESION SOCIAL PROTECTION SOCIAL SECURITY STRIKES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TEMPORARY JOBS TEMPORARY WORKERS TERMINATION TOTAL EMPLOYMENT TRADE UNIONS TRAINING REQUIREMENTS TRIPARTITE UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYED PEOPLE UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE UNEMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS UNSKILLED LABOR UNSKILLED WORKERS WAGE DISTRIBUTION WAGE LEVEL WAGE POLICY WAGE PREMIUM WAGE PREMIUMS WAGE RATE WAGE RATES WAGE SET WAGE STRUCTURE WOMEN WORKERS WORK HOURS WORK ORGANIZATION WORKER WORKERS WORKING WORKING HOURS WORKING TIME WORKING WOMEN WORKPLACE YOUNG WORKERS YOUNGER WORKERS YOUTH EMPLOYMENT
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Middle East | North Africa
2017-08-10T20:00:43Z | 2017-08-10T20:00:43Z | 2010-07

This note provides a general background of the main features of labor regulation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and benchmarks them against international best practices. The note compiles information on available labor laws and other legal acts concerning employment protection regulation. Within the broader scope of labor regulation, and in order to assure regional comparability, information collected focuses on key issues in the labor law associated with commencing or terminating employment and during the period of employment (including maternity benefits). The main sources the data are the World Bank doing business 2010 and International Labour Organisation (ILO) databank. This note is a tool to provide policymakers and international organizations with a regional diagnose of how labor regulation affects labor market outcomes in MENA and inform client governments about strategic approaches to employment creation through labor policy and reform. This activity comes as a response to regional priorities in the context of the Arab World Initiative (AWI). One of the six strategic themes of the AWI focuses explicitly on employment creation as a top priority. Part of the World Bank's mandate under the AWI is to inform client governments about strategic approaches to employment creation through labor policy and reform.

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