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Private Sector Pharmaceutical Supply and Distribution Channels in Africa : A Focus on Ghana, Malawi and Mali

ACCESS TO PRODUCTS ACCOUNTABILITY ADVERTISING ANALGESICS ANTIMALARIALS ARTISANS ASPIRIN BAR CODES BATCH NUMBERS BATCHES BRAND BRAND NAME BRAND NAME PRODUCTS BRAND NAMES BRANDS BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS MODEL BUSINESS MODELS BUSINESS PARTNERS BUSINESSES BUYER BUYERS CAPABILITIES CARTONS CERTIFICATION CHEMISTS CLINICS COLD CHAIN COLLECTION OF DATA COMMODITIES COMMODITY COMMUNICABLE DISEASES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT COMPETITIVENESS COMPUTER SYSTEMS CONSUMER DEMAND CONSUMER EDUCATION CONSUMER PRICES CORRUPTION DELIVERY SERVICES DELIVERY SYSTEM DIABETES DISCLOSURE DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK DISTRIBUTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS DOMESTIC MANUFACTURERS DRUG DONATIONS DRUG TESTING DRUGS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELECTRICITY ELECTRONIC PAYMENT ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT EQUIPMENT ESSENTIAL DRUGS EXPENDITURE EXPENDITURES FAIR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INVESTMENT FINANCIAL SERVICE FINANCIAL SERVICES FINANCIAL SUPPORT FINISHED PRODUCTS FLOW OF GOODS FLOW OF INFORMATION FOREIGN CURRENCY FOREIGN EXCHANGE GENERIC DRUGS GENERIC PRODUCTS GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS GOVERNMENT POLICIES GOVERNMENT POLICY GOVERNMENT SERVICES HARMONIZATION HEALTH CARE HEALTH CARE WORKERS HEALTH INSURANCE HEALTH OUTCOMES HEALTH SERVICES HOSPITALIZATION HOSPITALS HUMAN RESOURCES HYPERTENSION INSPECTION INSPECTIONS INTERNATIONAL ACTORS INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS INVENTORIES IRRATIONAL USE LABORATORIES LAWS LEGAL SYSTEMS LICENSE LICENSES LIFE EXPECTANCY LIMITED ACCESS LOCAL MANUFACTURERS LOGISTICS COMPANIES LOGISTICS SYSTEM MARKET COMPETITION MARKET FAILURES MARKET FORCES MARKET INFORMATION MARKET RESEARCH MARKET SHARE MARKET STUDIES MARKET VALUE MARKETING MATERIAL MEDICAL STORES MEDICAL SUPPLIES MEDICINE MEDICINES MIDDLEMEN MORTALITY NEW MARKETS NEW TECHNOLOGIES NURSES NUTRITION PACKAGING PARASTATALS PATIENT PATIENTS PAYMENT TERMS PHARMACEUTICAL PHARMACEUTICAL CONSUMPTION PHARMACEUTICAL DISPENSING PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURERS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING PHARMACEUTICAL POLICY PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTION PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR PHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLIERS PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLIES PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLY PHARMACIES PHARMACISTS PHARMACOLOGY PHARMACY PHARMACY PRACTICES PILL POOLED PROCUREMENT PRESCRIPTIONS PRIVATE PHARMACIES PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTORS PROCUREMENT PRODUCT MARKET PRODUCT PRICING PRODUCT QUALITY PUBLIC EDUCATION PUBLIC HEALTH PURCHASING PURCHASING POWER QUALITY ASSURANCE QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY OF SERVICES QUININE RADIO RADIO-FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION REGULATORY AUTHORITIES REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT REGULATORY FRAMEWORK REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS RESULT RESULTS RETAIL RETAIL OUTLETS RETAIL PHARMACIES RETAIL PRICES RETAIL SALES RETAILING SALES SERVICE DELIVERY SERVICE PROVIDERS SITES SPREAD STOCK MANAGEMENT STOCKS STORAGE FACILITIES STORAGE SPACE SUBSTITUTION SUPERVISION SUPPLIER SUPPLIERS SUPPLY CHAIN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS SUPPLY CHAINS SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SUPPLY NETWORKS SUPPLY OF RAW MATERIALS TABLETS TARGETS TECHNICAL STAFF THERAPIES TRADITIONAL MEDICINES TRANSPORT SYSTEM TURNOVER USER USER FEES USERS VACCINES VALUE CHAIN VITAMINS VOLATILITY WAREHOUSE WHOLESALE PRICES WHOLESALER WHOLESALERS WHOLESALING WORKERS WORKING CAPITAL
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Ghana | Malawi | Mali
2013-05-28T21:50:29Z | 2013-05-28T21:50:29Z | 2011-08

Sustainable access to affordable, high-quality medicines is an important component in all health care systems but remains limited in many African countries. Supply and distribution of medicines are a fundamental aspect of the success of any health system. Disruptions to this supply undermine health outcomes as supply chains have an impact on the availability, cost, and quality of medicines for patients. Common problems associated with the supply and distribution of pharmaceuticals often include poor supply chain management, stock pilfering, insufficient human resources, and limited financing resulting in chronic stock outs. In resource-poor settings where public services fail to meet demand, the private and voluntary sectors are increasingly being called on, prompting some policy makers to consider private mechanisms as alternatives to state-run drug procurement and distribution systems. This study reviews some of the ways in which some countries in Africa organize their private pharmaceutical supply and distribution channels, focusing on three diverse countries: Ghana, Malawi, and Mali. It discusses some of the strengths and challenges associated with such arrangements, as well as relevant options to improve access, availability, quality and affordability of privately supplied pharmaceuticals.

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