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A Model of Gendered Production in Colonial Africa and Implications for Development in the Post-Colonial Period

ACCESS TO RESOURCES ADVERSE EFFECTS AGGREGATE DEMAND AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY BARGAINING BARGAINING POWER BORROWING CASH CROP CASH CROPS CHILD LABOR CHILD REARING COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE CONSTANT RETURNS TO SCALE CROPS CULTURAL CHANGE CUSTOM DECISION MAKING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT POLICY DIMINISHING RETURNS DISCRIMINATION DIVIDENDS DIVISION OF LABOR DOWNSIDE RISKS DRIVERS ECONOMIC CHANGE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC HISTORY ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE ECONOMIC POLICIES ECONOMIC POWER ECONOMIC RESEARCH ELASTICITY ELASTICITY OF SUBSTITUTION ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN EXPORTS EXTENSION EXTERNALITIES FARMERS FARMS FEMALE LABOR FEMALE LABOR FORCE FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION FERTILITY FOOD PRODUCTION FORCED LABOR FOSSIL FUELS FUTURE RESEARCH GDP GENDER GENDER ANALYSIS GENDER BIAS GENDER DIMENSION GENDER DISPARITY GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR GENDER EQUALITY GENDER GAP GENDER INEQUALITY GENDER ISSUES GENDER RELATIONS GENDER ROLES GENDER SEGREGATION GIRLS HIGH FERTILITY RATE HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT HOUSEHOLD ASSETS HOUSEHOLD LEVEL HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HUMAN CAPITAL HUSBANDS IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT INCOME INCOME INEQUALITY INCOMES INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS INFORMAL ECONOMY INFORMAL SECTOR INFORMAL SECTOR EMPLOYMENT INNOVATION INTEGRATION INTENSIVE INDUSTRIES JOB TRAINING LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOR MARKET LABOR PRODUCTIVITY LABOR SUPPLY LEVEL OF EDUCATION LIFE EXPECTANCY LOCAL GOVERNMENTS MACROECONOMIC STABILITY MARGINAL PRODUCT MARGINAL REVENUE MARKET ECONOMIES MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL MONOPOLY MORTALITY NATIONAL INCOME NATIVE POPULATION NATURAL RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCES OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY OPEN ECONOMY OPTIMAL ALLOCATION PERFECT COMPETITION POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY IMPLICATIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POLITICAL ECONOMY POPULATION DIVISION POPULATION ESTIMATES POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION PRESSURE POWER OF WOMEN PRICE TAKERS PRODUCT MARKETS PRODUCTION FUNCTION PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES PROGRESS RAPID POPULATION GROWTH RATES OF GROWTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION RESPECT RURAL WOMEN SEX SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOR SKILLED LABOR SOCIAL NORMS SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SOIL CULTIVATION SPILLOVER SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE TIME CONSTRAINTS TOTAL OUTPUT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS UNCTAD UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNITED NATIONS URBAN AREAS UTILITY FUNCTION WAGE STRUCTURE WAGES WEALTH WEEDS WOMAN WORKING HOURS WORLD POPULATION
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2013-09-04T16:52:52Z | 2013-09-04T16:52:52Z | 2013-05

This paper proposes a model to analyze the implications of colonial policies for gender inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa. The model emphasizes segmentation of production under complete specialization. It shows that the colonial production model, underpinned by occupational job segregation in the agricultural sector and gender bias in the non-agricultural sector, exacerbated gender inequality by limiting employment opportunities for women outside the realm of home production and subsistence agriculture. Over the past few decades, the resilience of parameters underlying these models of colonial production has heightened the risks of macroeconomic volatility in the region, especially where the structural transformation from low to high-value-added activities has remained elusive.

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