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Infrastructure and Employment Creation in the Middle East and North Africa

ACCOUNTING AIR AIR TRANSPORT AVERAGE WAGE BALANCED BUDGETS BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE BASIC SERVICES BRIDGE BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE CHANGE COST-BENEFIT CREATING JOBS DEADWEIGHT DEADWEIGHT LOSS DEBT DEMAND FOR WATER DEPRECIATION DISPLACEMENT DISPLACEMENT EFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF WATER DRIVERS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELASTICITIES ELASTICITY EMPLOYABILITY EMPLOYEE EMPLOYMENT EMPLOYMENT EFFECT EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS EMPLOYMENT GENERATION EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT IMPACT EMPLOYMENT LEVELS EMPLOYMENT MULTIPLIER EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS EMPLOYMENT SHARE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION EMPLOYMENT SUBSIDIES EXPANSION FACTORING FEMALE LABOR FEMALE LABOR FORCE FUEL FUEL PRICES HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT HIGHWAY HIGHWAY DESIGN HIGHWAY PROJECTS HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSING INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES INSURANCE INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT SPENDING JOB CREATION JOB SKILLS LABOR COSTS LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOR INTENSITY LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET INDICATORS LABOR MARKETS LABOR-INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES LABOR-INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGY LABOUR LAND TRANSPORT LONG-RUN EMPLOYMENT LONG-TERM EMPLOYMENT MANUFACTURERS MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE NEW ENTRANTS O&M OPERATING SURPLUS PAYROLL TAXES POPULATION DENSITY POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION WITH ACCESS PRIVATE FINANCING PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS PRIVATE SECTOR PRODUCTIVITY PROPERTY TAXES PUBLIC WORKS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS RAIL RAIL LINES ROAD ROAD MAINTENANCE ROAD NETWORK ROAD QUALITY ROADS SANITATION SANITATION SYSTEMS SAVINGS SAVINGS RATES SCHOOLS SEWAGE SHORT-TERM JOB CREATION SKILL GROUP SKILLED WORKERS SOCIAL SERVICES SUBSIDIZED EMPLOYMENT SUBSIDIZED EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS TAX TOTAL EMPLOYMENT TRAFFIC TRAINING PROGRAMS TRANSITION ECONOMIES TRANSPORT TRANSPORT ACTIVITIES TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT SECTOR UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM UNEMPLOYMENT RATE UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNSUBSIDIZED JOBS URBAN AREAS URBAN POPULATION URBAN SANITATION URBAN WATER URBANIZATION UTILITIES WAGE RATE WAGE RATES WAGES WASTE WASTE WATER WASTE WATER TREATMENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT WATER SECTOR WATER SERVICES WATER SUPPLY WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER WORKS WORKERS
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Washington, DC: World Bank
Middle East and North Africa | North Africa | Middle East
2013-01-31T21:47:01Z | 2013-01-31T21:47:01Z | 2013-01-17

The state of national labor markets has always been a concern for governments and development agencies such as the World Bank. Key labor market indicators, such as the rate of unemployment, send signals about the health of an economy and mirror citizens' attitudes. Being gainfully employed is an important aspect of an individual's well-being both financially and socially, as 'initial failures in finding a job can lead to persistent joblessness, a loss of interest in further schooling, delayed family formation, mental distress, and negative manifestations of citizenship' (World Bank 2007). Increased expenditure on infrastructure projects has a short-run effect on employment creation as more workers are hired to build infrastructure. These jobs last only during the investment phase of the project, and, without a continuous injection as in a stimulus-type program, such jobs will be temporary. However, the investment program will have created a larger stock of infrastructure capital and this permanent addition facilitates additional growth in the economy. The extra demand from this incremental growth creates more jobs, and these tend to be permanent. Furthermore, an employment experience in an infrastructure-related employment program, even if temporary, might improve the chance of being re-employed at a later date. This study capitalizes on the World Bank's long-standing knowledge on infrastructure, employment, and growth and applies it to the case of MENA to assess the employment creation potential of infrastructure investment.

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