The Madagascar Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) has the following objectives: (i) to facilitate the integration of environment-development priorities in a future Country Assistance Strategy (CAS); (ii) to provide analytical information that can underpin the development of future World Bank operations in the environment sector; and (iii) to serve as an initial analysis of environment sector governance issues for future budgetary assistance lending to the Government if such an operation is pursued in the future upon resolution of the current political crisis. The CEA also aims to contribute to debate and dialogue with the Government and development partners on environment-development linkages and priorities in Madagascar. The current CEA is the first ever prepared for Madagascar. It also draws on a range of sector-based analytical work including a sector wide analysis undertaken by the World Bank in 2003, an environment sector policy note prepared by the World Bank in 2010, and work carried out by technical and financial partners in the sector. It also draws on a range of analytical work carried out by the World Bank in related sectors including governance analyses of the mining and forestry sectors, a national public expenditure review, and a feasibility study of the development of a program for introducing ethanol cook-stoves in households. The CEA has been carried out in the context of the World Bank environment strategy 2012 and the World Bank Interim Strategy Note (ISN) for Madagascar.