Europe's focus on returns risks destabilising receiving countries and aggravating the root causes of migration.
Regardless of who wins the fight for Tripoli, the power of armed groups over government is being entrenched.
Africa's large-scale security operations have neglected rural areas where violent extremism thrives.
Corruption and organised crime are decimating the fish population, and threaten the livelihoods of thousands.
Instead of criminalising artisanal miners, the target should be the syndicate bosses behind this lucrative illegal industry.