This report presents the problem, describes the analytical framework, the African and World context and the characteristics that need to be present for a responsible and effective urbanization. Chapter one discusses the issues involved in measuring urban growth and density and the problem of under-measuring density. Chapter two introduces key aspects of the recent urbanization in Tanzania, including migration, structure of economy and employment and the estimation of the urban contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Chapter three discussed the backbone of any urbanization policy, land management and land markets, and how the government is in a position to drastically improve the main constraint of a healthy urbanization process by unleashing urban land supply and providing the urban actors with the most needed factor: serviced urban land. Chapter four discusses the universal provision of basic services and the general picture for rural and urban Tanzania at present. Chapter five discusses the need for substantial infrastructure to improve mobility and connectivity and the funding potential of the different players in the urbanization process, including central and regional authorities. Finally, chapter six closes the report with conclusions and recommendations.