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Measures to Reduce the Economic and Social Impact of High Fuel Prices

ACCIDENT COSTS ACCIDENT EXTERNALITIES ACCIDENTS AGRICULTURE AIR ALTERNATIVE MODES AVERAGE PRICE AVERAGE PRICES AVERAGE TRUCK FLEET BALANCE BIDDING BORDER PRICE BUS BUS FARES BUS OPERATING COSTS BUS TRANSPORT BUSES CAR CAR OWNERSHIP CAR OWNERSHIP RATES CARS CLIMATE CHANGE COMMERCIAL VEHICLES COMPETITIVE PRICES COMPETITIVENESS CONGESTION CHARGES CONGESTION COSTS CONSUMPTION OF FUEL COST OF LIVING COST OF TRANSPORT COSTS OF EXTERNALITIES COSTS OF TRANSPORT COSTS OF TRANSPORT EXTERNALITIES CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL PIPELINE CRUDE OIL PRICES DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS DEPOT DIESEL DIESEL ENGINE DIESEL FUEL DIESEL FUEL CONSUMPTION DIESEL FUEL PRICES DISPOSABLE INCOME DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL DOMESTIC MARKET DOMESTIC TRANSPORT DRIVER TRAINING DRIVERS ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC IMPACT ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ECONOMIC STUDIES ECONOMIES OF SCALE ELASTICITY ELECTRICITY ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES EXCISE DUTIES EXPENDITURE EXPORT MARKETS EXPORTS EXTERNAL MARKETS EXTERNALITIES FIXED COSTS FREE GASOLINE FREIGHT FREIGHT COSTS FREIGHT OPERATIONS FUEL FUEL CONSUMPTION FUEL CONSUMPTION RATES FUEL COST FUEL COSTS FUEL DISTRIBUTION FUEL EFFICIENCY FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLES FUEL OIL FUEL PRICE FUEL PRICE INCREASES FUEL PRICE REDUCTIONS FUEL PRICES FUEL PRODUCTS FUEL SPECIFICATIONS FUEL TAX FUEL TAXES FUELS GAS GAS POLICY GASOLINE GASOLINE COST GASOLINE PRICES GASOLINE TAX GASOLINE TAXES GDP GDP PER CAPITA HEAVY GOODS VEHICLES HEAVY TRUCKS HIGH FUEL CONSUMPTION HIGH SULFUR CONTENT HIGH TRANSPORT HIGHER OIL PRICES HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES IMPACT OF TRANSPORT INFLATION INLAND WATERWAY INTERNATIONAL TRADE KEROSENE LAND TRANSPORT LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIGHT VEHICLES LOAD FACTORS LOCAL AIR POLLUTION LONGER DISTANCES MARITIME TRANSPORT MARKET CONCENTRATION MARKET CONDITIONS MARKET SHARE MARKET STRUCTURE MARKETING MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES MILEAGE MONOPOLY NATIONAL INCOME NATIONAL OIL NATIONAL TRANSPORT NOISE OIL AND GAS OIL COMPANIES OIL CONSUMERS OIL IMPORTING COUNTRIES OIL MARKETING OIL MARKETING COMPANIES OIL MARKETS OIL PIPELINE OIL PRICES OIL PRODUCING OIL PRODUCING COUNTRIES OIL-IMPORTING COUNTRIES OIL-PRODUCING COUNTRIES PEAK TRAFFIC PEAK TRAFFIC PERIODS PER CAPITA INCOME PER CAPITA INCOMES PETROLEUM PETROLEUM MARKETS PETROLEUM PRICES PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PETROLEUM SECTOR PIPELINE POLLUTION PRICE CEILINGS PRICE OF DIESEL PRICE OF FUEL PRICE OF GASOLINE PRICE OF OIL PRICE SPIKES PRICE STABILITY PRICE SUBSIDIES PRICE VARIATION PRICING POLICY PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE VEHICLES PRODUCTION COSTS PRODUCTS MARKET PUBLIC TRANSPORT PURCHASING RAIL RAIL CONNECTION RAIL TRANSPORT RAILWAY REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS REFINED PRODUCTS REFINERIES REFINERY REFINERY CAPACITY REFINING REGULATORY FRAMEWORK RESIDUAL FUEL RESIDUAL FUEL OIL RETAIL RETAIL COMPETITION RETAIL PRICE RETAIL PRICES ROAD ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE ROAD MAINTENANCE ROAD NETWORK ROAD QUALITY ROAD TRANSPORT ROAD VEHICLES ROADS SALES SPOT PRICES STOCKS STORAGE CAPACITY STORAGE FACILITIES SULFUR SUNK COSTS SUPPLIER SUPPLIERS TAX REVENUE TAXES ON DIESEL TAXES ON GASOLINE TRADE COMPETITIVENESS TRAFFIC TRAFFIC CONGESTION TRANSACTIONS COSTS TRANSIT TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRANSPORT AFFORDABILITY TRANSPORT COSTS TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT MODE TRANSPORT POLICIES TRANSPORT POLICY TRANSPORT PROJECTS TRANSPORT RESEARCH TRANSPORT SECTOR TRANSPORT SERVICES TRANSPORT SYSTEMS TRANSPORT TARIFFS TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION COSTS TRANSPORTS TRAVEL TIME TRUCK DRIVERS TRUCK TRANSPORT TRUCKS VEHICLE VEHICLE OWNERSHIP VEHICLE TAXATION VEHICLE TYPES VOLATILITY WORLD MARKETS
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Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2017-06-27T16:20:06Z | 2017-06-27T16:20:06Z | 2011

High volatility in the world prices of petroleum has been a characteristic feature of the global economy in the last decade. World petroleum prices increased four-fold between 2004 and 2008 and, and following a drop in prices in the second half of 2008, petroleum prices have been rising again, and they are several times higher than they were two decades ago. Since high and volatility of prices is likely to be a permanent feature of the global economy for the foreseeable future, they merit a reconsideration of the national transport and taxation policies that were put in place when fuel prices were not such a significant component of trade-related transactions costs in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. Transport practices that were based on the assumption of low price of fuel are not sustainable, and policies neglect fuel efficiency considerations through lowering the fuel consumption of vehicles measures are no longer sustainable. Efficient and low transport cost is essential to achieve regional economic integration and strengthen Africa's competitiveness in external markets. Higher diesel prices also impact on the prices of all other goods which use diesel as an intermediate input. The most significant among them with implications for the poor in low-income developing countries is food, on which the poor spend a disproportionately high share of their total household expenditures. This report is in three parts in the first part, transport fuel prices in the countries of SSA are compared with those of other regions of the world. The comparison is not only in terms of the actual retail prices but also, but taking account of per capita incomes and truck revenues, also in terms of affordability. This Part also provides evidence of the make-up of transport fuel prices in SSA countries, as a first step in assessing how they can be dealt with. The second part provides new evidence of the impact of these high fuel prices on the export competiveness of a sample of six SSA countries. It also provides a shorter description of the results of a study of the impact of fuel prices on logistics costs in Central America, since so far there have not been any studies of the impact of high transport fuel prices on logistics and food costs in SSA countries. The third part deals with the ways in which the impact of high transport fuel prices can be addressed. Two main areas of action are described, those that would reduce the retail price of transport fuel and those that would increase fuel efficiency, so they impact of high prices would be reduced. This section focuses on diesel fuel, as this is by far the most used by the trucks that transport export products and are involved in domestic logistics. This section concludes with some ideas on what could be done next to make progress on implementing the most promising ideas for reducing the impact of high transport fuel prices.

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