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Working Paper

Rural Banking : The Case of Rural and Community Banks in Ghana

ACCESS TO CREDIT ACCESS TO FINANCE ADB AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR APEX BANK AUTONOMY BANK CREDIT BANK MANAGEMENT BANKING NETWORK BANKING SERVICES BANKING SUPERVISION BANKING SYSTEM BOARDS OF DIRECTORS BORROWER BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES BUSINESS PLANS CAPACITY BUILDING CAPITAL ADEQUACY CAPITAL REQUIREMENT CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS CASH FLOW CASH FLOWS CASH RESERVES CENTRAL BANKS COLLATERAL COLLATERAL REQUIREMENTS COMMERCIAL BANK COMMERCIAL BANKS COMMERCIAL LENDING COMMERCIAL LOAN COMMERCIAL LOANS COMMUNITY BANK COMMUNITY BANKS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT COMPUTER TRAINING CONSOLIDATION CONSULTING SERVICES COOPERATIVES CORRUPTION CREDIT CONSTRAINT CREDIT DECISIONS CREDIT HISTORY CREDIT LINES CREDIT MANAGEMENT CREDIT OFFICER CREDIT OFFICERS CREDIT POLICIES CREDIT PORTFOLIO CREDIT PORTFOLIOS CREDIT PRODUCTS CREDIT PROVISION CREDIT RISK CREDIT UNION CREDIT UNIONS CREDITWORTHINESS CREDITWORTHY BORROWERS CURRENT ACCOUNTS CUSTOMER SERVICE CUSTOMER SERVICES DEBT DEPOSIT DEPOSIT ACCOUNT DEPOSIT ACCOUNTS DEPOSIT BALANCE DEPOSIT BALANCES DEPOSIT INSURANCE DEPOSIT MOBILIZATION DEPOSIT PRODUCTS DEPOSITORS DEPOSITS DEVELOPMENT BANKS DIRECT FINANCIAL SUPPORT DISTRESSED BANKS DONOR FUNDING ECONOMIES OF SCALE ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA EMPOWERMENT EXPORT EARNINGS FARMERS FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FINANCIAL EDUCATION FINANCIAL INSTITUTION FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION FINANCIAL LITERACY FINANCIAL MARKET FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE FINANCIAL REFORMS FINANCIAL RESOURCES FINANCIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS FINANCIAL SUPPORT FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY FIXED ASSETS FIXED CAPITAL FORMAL CREDIT FORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FORMAL FINANCIAL SERVICE FORMAL FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP GUARANTEE GROUP LENDING GROUP LOAN GROUP LOANS GUARANTORS HIGH INTEREST RATES INCOME TAX INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEURS INDIVIDUALS WITH BANK ACCOUNTS INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INSTALLMENT INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT INSURANCE POLICIES INTEREST RATE INTERNAL CONTROLS INTERNATIONAL BANK LACK OF ACCESS LENDING REQUIREMENT LENDING REQUIREMENTS LENDING TECHNIQUES LIQUIDATION LIQUIDITY RISK LOAN LOAN AMOUNTS LOAN APPLICATIONS LOAN APPROVALS LOAN DEFAULT LOAN FUND LOAN PORTFOLIO LOAN PORTFOLIOS LOAN PRODUCT LOAN PRODUCTS LOAN RECOVERY LOAN REPAYMENT LOAN SIZE LOCAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS MFI MFIS MICRO ENTREPRENEURS MICRO FINANCE MICROCREDIT MICROFINANCE MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS MICROFINANCE LOAN MICROFINANCE LOANS MINIMUM BALANCES MONEY LAUNDERING MONEY TRANSFER MONEY TRANSFERS MONEYLENDERS MORTGAGE NET WORTH NONPERFORMING LOANS NUTRITION OPERATIONAL RISK OUTREACH OVERDRAFT OVERDRAFTS PAYMENT SERVICES PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS POOR CLIENTS POOR CREDIT PRIVATE FUNDING PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS PROFIT MARGIN PROFITABILITY PRUDENTIAL REGULATIONS PUBLIC INVESTMENT REPAYMENT REPAYMENT CAPACITY RESERVE REQUIREMENT RESERVE REQUIREMENTS REVOLVING FUND RISK MANAGEMENT RURAL BANK RURAL BANKING RURAL BANKS RURAL BRANCHES RURAL CLIENTS RURAL CREDIT RURAL FINANCE RURAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS RURAL FINANCIAL SERVICE RURAL FINANCIAL SERVICES RURAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM SAVINGS SAVINGS ACCOUNT SAVINGS ACCOUNTS SAVINGS PRODUCT SAVINGS PRODUCTS SCHOLARSHIPS SCHOOL BUILDINGS SMALL FARMERS SMALL LOAN SMALLHOLDER SMALLHOLDER FARMERS SMALLHOLDERS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SOLVENCY SOURCES OF CREDIT SUBSIDIARY TAX SAVINGS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TECHNICAL SUPPORT TIME DEPOSITS TREASURY BILLS UNIVERSAL BANKS URBAN AREAS URBANIZATION VILLAGE VILLAGES WORKING CAPITAL
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Ghana
2017-08-10T20:54:52Z | 2017-08-10T20:54:52Z | 2010-05

This case study describes the history and business model of the Rural and Community Bank (RCB) network in Ghana, analyzes its performance, identifies key issues, and makes recommendations on the way forward. The study analyzes the service delivery and financial performance of the RCBs. Before the establishment of RCBs in the late 1970s and the subsequent expansion of other service providers into rural areas, access to institutional credit for farm and nonfarm activities was scarce. The main sources of credit were moneylenders and traders that charged very high interest rates. In many rural communities, secure, safe, and convenient savings and payment facilities hardly existed. The first RCB was established in a farming community in the central region of Ghana in 1976. Rural communities showed tremendous interested in the community ownership and management features of RCBs, and by 1984 the number of RCBs reached 106. The introduction of a check payment system for cocoa farmers also spurred the establishment of local banks in many communities. The financial performance of many RCBs started to decline, however, for several reasons, including a drought that affected the country in 1983, weak governing ability, conflicts within boards of directors, and ineffective management in many RCBs. By the end of 2008, 127 RCBs were in operation with a total 584 service outlets. RCBs are regulated by Ghana's central bank, the Bank of Ghana, and thereby form part of the country's regulated financial sector. RCBs are the largest providers of formal financial services in rural areas and represent about half of the total banking outlets in Ghana.

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