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Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note

Reshaping Egypt's Economic Geography : Domestic Integration as a Development Platform

ACCESS TO EDUCATION ACCESS TO SANITATION ACCESS TO SERVICES ADEQUATE NUTRITION AFFORDABLE HOUSING AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT AGRICULTURAL LAND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AIR ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES ALLOCATIONS ACROSS REGIONS ANTENATAL CARE BABIES BASIC EDUCATION CAPITAL INVESTMENT CAR CARIBBEAN REGION CARS CITIZENS CLEAN WATER CONGESTION CONGESTION COST CONGESTION COSTS CONGESTION INDEX CONSUMPTION AGGREGATE CONSUMPTION BASKET CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA COST OF TRANSPORT COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS CREDIT MARKETS DEMAND FOR ROAD TRAVEL DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES DEVELOPMENT PLANNING DRIVING EARLY CHILDHOOD ECONOMIES OF SCALE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL SERVICES EFFECT OF CONGESTION ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY EQUAL ACCESS EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY EXTERNALITIES EXTREMELY POOR HOUSEHOLDS FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD PRODUCTION GASOLINE GASOLINE PRICE GASOLINE TAXES GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HEALTH CARE HEALTH EXPENDITURE HEALTH SERVICES HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSING HOUSING ALTERNATIVES HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ILLEGAL PARKING ILLITERACY ILLITERACY RATE IMMUNIZATION INCOME DISTRIBUTION INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT INEQUALITY INFORMATION SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS INSPECTION INTERNAL MIGRATION INTERNATIONAL TRADE INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION LABOR FORCE LAGGING REGIONS LAND ASSETS LAND MANAGEMENT LAND RECLAMATION LAND SCARCITY LAND TITLING LAND USE LANDHOLDINGS LARGE CITIES LEVEL OF EDUCATION LEVELS OF EDUCATION LIVING STANDARDS LOCAL DEVELOPMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENTS LOCAL INFRASTRUCTURE LOCAL ROADS MARITAL STATUS MASS TRANSIT METROPOLITAN REGION METROPOLITAN TRANSPORT MIGRANTS MIGRATION MIGRATION FLOWS MILEAGE MOBILITY MODAL SHIFT MORTALITY MOTHER NATAL CARE NATIONAL LEVEL NUMBER OF ADULTS NUMBER OF CHILDREN NUMBER OF PEOPLE NUTRITION ODOMETER OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUALS PATRONAGE PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION POLICY FRAMEWORK POLLUTION POOR FAMILIES POOR HOUSEHOLDS POOR PEOPLE POOR PERSON POOR RURAL HOUSEHOLDS POPULATION DENSITIES POPULATION DENSITY POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION SIZE POSTNATAL CARE POVERTY LINE POVERTY RATE POVERTY RATES POVERTY REDUCTION PRENATAL CARE PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOLING PROGRESS PUBLIC SERVICE PUBLIC SERVICES PUBLIC SPENDING PUBLIC TRANSPORT QUALITY OF EDUCATION QUALITY OF LIFE RATE OF GROWTH RATES OF GROWTH REGIONAL ALLOCATION REGIONAL COMPARISON REGIONAL CONTEXT REGIONAL DIFFERENCES REGIONAL DIMENSION REGIONAL DISPARITIES REGIONAL DISPARITY REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH REGIONAL FACTORS REGIONAL GAPS REGIONAL INTEGRATION REGIONAL LOCATION REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE REMOTE LOCATIONS RESOURCE ALLOCATION RESOURCE ALLOCATIONS RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS RING ROAD RISING CONSUMPTION ROAD ROAD CONGESTION ROAD DESIGN ROAD IMPROVEMENT ROAD NETWORK ROAD QUALITY ROADS RURAL RURAL AREA RURAL AREAS RURAL FAMILIES RURAL GAP RURAL HOUSEHOLD RURAL POPULATION RURAL WELFARE SANITATION SCHOOL AGE SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SCHOOLING SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOLING SERVICE PROVISION SMALL FARMER SMALL FARMERS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SPATIAL STRATEGIES SPILLOVER SUBSISTENCE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH TAX TEACHER RATIO TOLLS TRAFFIC TRAFFIC CONGESTION TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRANSPORT COSTS TRAVEL TIME TRAVEL TIMES TRUE UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNIVERSAL ACCESS UNIVERSITY EDUCATION UPPER INCOME GROUPS URBAN AREAS URBAN CENTERS URBAN COMMUNITIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN MIGRATION URBAN WOMEN URBANIZATION VACCINES VEHICLE VICIOUS CYCLE WEALTH WELFARE INDICATOR WELFARE MEASURES WORKER PRODUCTIVITY WORKING-AGE POPULATION
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Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Egypt, Arab Republic of
2012-12-03T20:56:38Z | 2012-12-03T20:56:38Z | 2012-06

This report investigates Egypt's regional economic growth, explores the causes for geographically unbalanced development, and proposes policy options to make unbalanced growth compatible with inclusive development. Regional disparities in income and consumption may be attributed to differences in natural endowments and geographical location, but unbalanced growth is mostly due to economies of scale, spillover effects, and the lower transaction costs that result from agglomeration. In Egypt, despite rapid progress in most welfare indicators in lagging regions, there are still substantial gaps in consumption and opportunities between growth poles and the rest of the country. Adopting integration as a development platform is not simple because spatial disparities are spanned in three dimensions: urban/rural dichotomies, the upper Egypt/lower Egypt duality, and the differences between large metropolises and the rest of the country. This typology of instruments underlies the menu of options presented in this report as the basis of domestic spatial integration as a development platform to achieve more balanced and equitable development without sacrificing growth. This report first identifies the gaps in consumption and in opportunities, showing the stark contrasts between regions and how they evolve through time. It then explores the causes of the gaps, revealing a multiplicity of factors and exposing the complexity of the problem. Finally, the bulk of the report presents the policy options to address the integration challenges.

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