Over the last several years, the Government of Togo has made important advances in the area of social protection. Although Togo has had limited social insurance and social assistance programs, the economic shock and natural disasters starting in 2008 brought the need for better mechanisms of social protection to the fore. The Government response has focused on measures to address the needs of the affected populations, while building the analytical base for developing a national social protection policy and strategy. For example, several important social protection programs were launched in the last few years, including the National Institute for Health Insurance, a labor intensive public works program for rural areas, a school lunch program, and a pilot for cash transfer program targeting vulnerable children. The Government has also promoted access to basic services by the poor by eliminating school fees and fees for cesarean sections. As part of developing the analytical base for a national social protection policy and strategy, a series of studies and analyses were carried out over the last two years. International development partners have supported this effort and have worked closely with the Government in developing this basis. This report forms part of the overall packet of analytical work prepared to support the formation of a national social protection policy and strategy. The objectives of this report are to: a) synthesize the situational analysis on poverty and vulnerability and the current state of social protection policies and programs from the set of background documents; and b) assist the government through providing general orientations and strategic choices in developing a national social protection policy and strategy that would integrate the various ongoing efforts and components of social protection with a view to achieving the Government's longer-term goal of social protection for all. This report is organized in the following sections: section two provides a brief overview of the objectives, components and importance of social protection as part a country's economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. Section three summarizes the basic situation of poverty and vulnerability in Togo and identifies vulnerable groups and main risks and shocks. Section four analyses the current policy and institutional framework and reviews the main areas of social protection, in terms of approach, coverage, targeting and expenditures. Section five proposes basic elements for the Government to take into consideration in developing a national social protection policy and strategy. Section six identifies next steps in finalizing the preparation of a national social protection policy and strategy.