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The Impact of Roads on Poverty Reduction : A Case Study of Cameroon

ACCESS ROADS ACCESS TO EDUCATION ACCESS TO MARKETS ACCESSIBILITY AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AGRICULTURAL WAGE AID AGENCIES AID EFFECTIVENESS ANNUAL GROWTH ANNUAL GROWTH RATE ARABLE LAND AVERAGE LEVEL BUSINESS CYCLE CASH CROPS CASH-CROP CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES CONSUMPTION GROWTH CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA CROP YIELDS DAILY TRANSPORT DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS DEVELOPMENT REPORT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY DISTRIBUTIONAL EFFECTS DIVERSIFICATION ECOLOGICAL ZONES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC POLICY ECONOMICS EMPIRICAL STUDIES EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ESTIMATED PARAMETER EXPLANATORY VARIABLES FAMINE FARMER FARMERS FARMING ACTIVITIES FEEDER ROADS FIXED EFFECTS FOOD CROPS FOOD EXPENDITURES FOOD MARKETS FOOD POLICY FOOD PRICES FOOD PROCESSING GEOGRAPHIC POVERTY TRAPS HIGHWAY HOUSEHOLD HEAD HOUSEHOLD SURVEY HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HOUSING HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION IMPACT ON POVERTY IMPACT ON POVERTY REDUCTION INCIDENCE OF POVERTY INCOME INCOME GENERATION INCOME INCREASE INDIVIDUAL FARMERS INEQUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE PRIVATIZATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS INFRASTRUCTURES INVESTMENT IN ROADS INVESTMENT RATE LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES LIVING STANDARDS MALNUTRITION MASSIVE INVESTMENTS MEANS OF TRANSPORT MICRO MODEL MOBILITY NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM NEGATIVE IMPACT NON-POOR GROUP NONFARM INCOME PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE POLICE POLICY IMPLICATIONS POLICY RESEARCH POOR POOR AREA POOR GROUPS POOR HOUSEHOLD POOR HOUSEHOLDS POOR PEOPLE POVERTY GAP POVERTY IMPACT POVERTY INDICATOR POVERTY LINE POVERTY MEASUREMENT POVERTY RATE POVERTY RATES POVERTY REDUCTION POVERTY REDUCTION IMPACT POVERTY SEVERITY POVERTY SITUATION POVERTY STATUS PRO-POOR PRO-POOR GROWTH PRODUCTION FUNCTION PUBLIC EXPENDITURE PUBLIC INVESTMENT RAILWAY REDUCING POVERTY REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS REGIONAL DUMMIES RELATIVE PRICES REMOTE AREAS ROAD ROAD DEVELOPMENT ROAD INVESTMENT ROAD NETWORK ROAD PROJECTS ROAD USERS ROADS RURAL RURAL ACTIVITIES RURAL AREA RURAL AREAS RURAL COMMUNITIES RURAL DEVELOPMENT RURAL DISTRICTS RURAL HOUSEHOLDS RURAL ISSUES RURAL PHENOMENON RURAL POOR RURAL POOR HOUSEHOLDS RURAL POVERTY RURAL POVERTY REDUCTION RURAL ROAD RURAL ROADS SCHOOLING SIGNIFICANT EFFECT SIGNIFICANT IMPACT SUBSISTENCE TRANSACTION COSTS TRANSPORT TRANSPORT COSTS TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT SERVICES TRAVEL TIME UNEMPLOYMENT UNSKILLED LABOR URBAN AREAS WALKING WEALTH
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Cameroon
2014-09-02T18:40:15Z | 2014-09-02T18:40:15Z | 2010-02

Many investments in infrastructure are built on the belief that they will ineluctably lead to poverty reduction and income generation. This has entailed massive aid-financed projects in roads in developing countries. However, the lack of robust evaluations and a comprehensive theoretical framework could raise questions about current strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using the second Cameroonian national household survey (Enquete Camerounaise Aupres des Menages II, 2001) and the Cameroon case study, this paper demonstrates that investing uniformly in tarred roads in Africa is likely to have a much lower impact on poverty than expected. Isolation from a tarred road is found to have no direct impact on consumption expenditures in Cameroon. The only impact is an indirect one in the access to labor activities. This paper reasserts the fact that access to roads is only one factor contributing to poverty reduction (and not necessarily the most important in many cases). Considering that increase in non-farming activities is the main driver for poverty reduction in rural Africa, the results contribute to the idea that emphasis on road investments should be given to locations where non-farming activities could be developed, which does mean that the last mile in rural areas probably should not be a road.

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