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Demand Side Instruments to Reduce Road Transportation Externalities in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area

ACCESS ROADS ACCIDENT COSTS ACCIDENT EXTERNALITIES ACCIDENT RISK ACCIDENTS AIR AIR POLLUTION ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS AUTO TRAVEL AUTO TRIPS AUTOMOBILE AUTOMOBILE CONGESTION AUTOMOBILE COSTS AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS AUTOMOBILE EXTERNALITIES AUTOMOBILE MILEAGE AUTOMOBILE MILES AUTOMOBILES AVERAGE DAILY TRIPS AVERAGE PASSENGER AVERAGE TRAVEL TIME AVERAGE TRIP LENGTH AVERAGE VEHICLE OCCUPANCY BUS BUS FARE BUS MILEAGE BUS PASSENGER BUS SERVICE BUS TRAVEL BUSES CAPITAL INVESTMENTS CAR CAR OWNERSHIP CARBON CONTENT CARBON DIOXIDE CARS CLIMATE CHANGE CONGESTION ACCIDENTS CONGESTION COSTS CONGESTION PRICING CONGESTION TOLLS COST OF CONGESTION COST OF TRAFFIC COSTS PER VEHICLE CYCLISTS DEMAND ELASTICITY DEMAND FOR AUTOMOBILE FUEL DEMAND FOR TRAVEL DIESEL DIESEL FUEL DIESEL VEHICLES DRIVERS DRIVING ECONOMIES OF SCALE EFFECTS OF FUEL PRICE ELASTICITIES OF ROAD TRAFFIC EMISSION EMISSION RATES EMISSIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EXCESS REVENUES EXCISE TAX EXTERNALITIES FARE REVENUES FARE SUBSIDIES FARE SYSTEMS FATAL INJURY FATALITIES FATALITY FATALITY RISK FATALITY RISKS FIXED COSTS FLEETS FUEL FUEL CONSUMPTION FUEL COSTS FUEL ECONOMY FUEL EFFICIENCY FUEL PRICE FUEL PRICES FUEL PRODUCTION FUEL SAVINGS FUEL SUBSIDIES FUEL TAX FUEL TAXES FUEL USE FUELS GASOLINE GASOLINE PRICE GASOLINE PRICES GASOLINE TAX GASOLINE TAXES GASOLINE USE GREENHOUSE GAS GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS HIGH FUEL CONSUMPTION INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS INJURY INJURY RISK INSPECTION INTERNATIONAL FUEL TAX LIGHT RAIL LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT LOCAL AIR POLLUTION MARGINAL CONGESTION COST MARGINAL EXTERNAL COSTS MASS TRANSIT METHANE MILEAGE MILEAGE DATA MILES PER CAPITA MODAL SHARES MOTOR VEHICLE MOTOR VEHICLE TRAVEL MOTORISTS PASSENGER OCCUPANCY PASSENGER TRANSPORT PASSENGER TRAVEL PASSENGER-MILE PASSENGERS PEAK TRAVEL PEDESTRIAN PEDESTRIANS POLLUTION POLLUTION CONTROL POLLUTION COSTS POLLUTION DAMAGE POLLUTION DAMAGES POLLUTION EMISSIONS POLLUTION EXTERNALITIES POPULATION DENSITY PRICE CHANGE PRICE ELASTICITIES PRICE ELASTICITY PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND PRICE OF FUEL PUBLIC ROADS PUBLIC TRANSIT PUBLIC TRANSPORT PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RAIL RAIL FARES RAIL NETWORK RAIL PASSENGER RAIL ROUTES RAIL SUBSIDIES RAIL SYSTEM RAIL SYSTEMS RAIL TRAVEL RAPID TRANSIT REDUCTION IN FUEL USE ROAD ROAD ACCIDENTS ROAD CONGESTION ROAD EXPANSION ROAD NETWORK ROAD PRICING ROAD SPACE ROAD TRAFFIC ROAD TRANSPORT ROAD USERS ROAD VEHICLES ROADWAY ROADWAY CAPACITY RUNWAY SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT TAXES ON GASOLINE TAXIS TOLL TOLLS TRAFFIC TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS TRAFFIC CONGESTION TRAFFIC CONGESTION PROBLEMS TRAFFIC ENGINEERING TRAFFIC GROWTH TRAFFIC LEVELS TRAFFIC VOLUME TRAINS TRAM TRANSIT AGENCIES TRANSIT AGENCY TRANSIT FARE TRANSIT FARES TRANSIT STOPS TRANSIT SUBSIDIES TRANSIT SYSTEM TRANSIT SYSTEMS TRANSIT TRIPS TRANSIT VEHICLES TRANSPORT AUTHORITY TRANSPORT ECONOMICS TRANSPORT EXTERNALITIES TRANSPORT MODES TRANSPORT PRICING TRANSPORT SECTOR TRANSPORT SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY TRANSPORTATION NETWORK TRANSPORTATION PRICING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS TRAVEL DEMAND TRAVEL MODE TRAVEL MODES TRAVEL OPTIONS TRAVEL SPEED TRAVEL TIME TRAVEL TIME COST TRIP UNDERGROUND URBAN PASSENGER URBAN ROAD URBAN TRANSIT URBAN TRANSPORTATION URBAN TRANSPORTATION ECONOMICS VEHICLE VEHICLE COLLISIONS VEHICLE CRASHES VEHICLE EMISSIONS VEHICLE FLEET VEHICLE MILEAGE VEHICLE MILES VEHICLE OCCUPANCIES VEHICLE OCCUPANCY VEHICLE OCCUPANTS VEHICLE OWNERSHIP VEHICLE SPEED VEHICLE TRAFFIC VEHICLE TYPES VEHICLE USE VEHICLE USERS VEHICLE-MILE VEHICLES WALKING
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | North Africa | Europe | Middle East and North Africa | Egypt, Arab Republic of
2012-06-29T21:00:50Z | 2012-06-29T21:00:50Z | 2012-06

Economically efficient prices for the passenger transportation system in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area would account for broader societal costs of traffic congestion and accidents, and local and global pollution. A $2.20 per gallon gasoline tax (2006 US$) would be economically efficient, compared with the current subsidy of $1.20 per gallon. Removal of the existing subsidy alone would achieve about three-quarters of the net benefits from subsidy elimination and the tax. Per-mile tolls could target congestion and accident externalities more efficiently than fuel taxes, although they are not practical at present. A combination of $0.80 per gallon gasoline tax to address pollution (versus $2.20 without tolls), and $0.12 and $0.19 tolls per vehicle mile on automobiles and microbuses, respectively, to address traffic congestion and accident externalities (versus $0.22 without fuel taxes) would be most efficient. Current public bus and rail subsidies are relatively close to efficient levels in the absence of such policies; however, if automobile and microbus externalities were fully addressed through more efficient pricing, optimal subsides to public transit would be smaller than current levels.

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