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Working Paper

SMEs for Job Creation in the Arab World : SME Access to Financial Services

ACCESS TO BANK ACCOUNTS ACCESS TO BANKING ACCESS TO BANKING SERVICES ACCESS TO CREDIT ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT ACCESS TO FINANCE ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES ACCESS TO FINANCING ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACCESS TO INSURANCE ACCESS TO MARKETS ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ADVISORY SERVICES APPROVAL PROCESSES ASSET FINANCING AVAILABILITY OF CREDIT BALANCE SHEET BANK ACCOUNT BANK ACCOUNTS BANK COMPETITION BANK CREDIT BANK LENDING BANK LOAN BANK LOANS BANKING SYSTEM BANKING SYSTEMS BANKRUPTCY BANKS BARRIERS TO ENTRY BIASES BORROWER BORROWING BUSINESS ACTIVITY BUSINESS CREDIT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES BUSINESS PLAN CAPACITY BUILDING CAPITAL ADEQUACY CAPITAL FORMATION CAPITAL MARKET CAPITAL MARKETS CAPITAL STRUCTURE CASH FLOW CASH MANAGEMENT COLLATERAL COLLATERAL REQUIREMENTS COMMERCIAL BANKS CONSUMER PROTECTION CORRUPTION CREDIT BUREAU CREDIT BUREAUS CREDIT FACILITIES CREDIT GAP CREDIT GUARANTEE CREDIT HISTORY CREDIT INFORMATION CREDIT INFORMATION SYSTEM CREDIT MARKETS CREDIT PRODUCTS CREDIT REGISTRIES CREDIT REPORTING CREDIT RISK CREDIT SCORE CREDIT SCORES CREDIT SCORING CREDITOR CREDITORS CREDITWORTHINESS CUSTOMER SERVICE DEBT DEPENDENCE ON TRADE CREDIT DEPOSIT DEPOSITS DEVELOPMENT BANK DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS DIVERSIFICATION ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA EMPLOYER EMPLOYERS EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISE REGISTRATION ENTREPRENEUR ENTREPRENEURS ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES EQUAL ACCESS EQUITY CAPITAL EQUITY FINANCE EQUITY FUNDS EQUITY INVESTMENTS EQUITY INVESTORS EXPENDITURES FINANCE COMPANIES FINANCIAL ACCESS FINANCIAL CHALLENGES FINANCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCIAL INSTITUTION FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION FINANCIAL MARKET FINANCIAL NEEDS FINANCIAL PRODUCT FINANCIAL PRODUCTS FINANCIAL SERVICE FINANCIAL SYSTEM FINANCING NEEDS FIXED CAPITAL GENDER GREATER ACCESS HIGH LEVELS OF ACCESS HUSBAND INEQUALITY INFORMAL ECONOMY INFORMATION ASYMMETRIES INFORMATION ASYMMETRY INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS INSURANCE PENETRATION INTEREST RATES INTERNAL FUNDS INTERNATIONAL BANK INTERNATIONAL FINANCE JOB CREATION JOB OPPORTUNITIES KEY CHALLENGES LACK OF ACCESS LENDER LENDING DECISIONS LENDING TECHNIQUE LENDING TECHNIQUES LEVELS OF CREDIT LINE OF CREDIT LIQUIDITY RISKS LOAN LOAN APPLICATION LOAN OFFICER LOAN OFFICERS LOAN PORTFOLIO LOAN PORTFOLIOS MARKET CONSTRAINTS MARKET ECONOMIES MARKET ECONOMY MFI MICRO ENTERPRISES MICRO FINANCE MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTION MICRO LENDING MICROFINANCE MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS MONEYLENDERS MOVABLE COLLATERAL MUTUAL FUNDS NEEDS OF WOMEN NEW MARKETS ONLINE COMMUNITY OUTREACH OVERDRAFT PAYMENT SERVICES PAYMENTS SERVICES PENETRATION RATE PENETRATION RATES PENSION FUNDS POLICY ENVIRONMENT PRICE DISCOVERY PRIVATE CREDIT PRIVATE EQUITY PRIVILEGED ACCESS PROFITABLE BUSINESS PROPERTY AS COLLATERAL PUBLIC CREDIT REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS REGULATORY POLICY REPOSSESSION RESERVE REQUIREMENT RESERVE REQUIREMENTS RETAIL BANKING RETAIL BANKS RISK MANAGEMENT SMALL BUSINESS SMALL BUSINESS LENDING SMALL ENTERPRISE SMALL ENTERPRISES SMALL LOANS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT START-UP START-UPS STOCK MARKETS SUPPLY CHAIN TERM CREDIT TRADE CREDIT TRANSACTION COSTS TREASURY BILLS UNEMPLOYMENT UNION VENTURE CAPITAL VENTURE CAPITAL FUND VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDS VILLAGES WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS WOMEN IN BUSINESS WORKING CAPITAL
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa
2017-06-13T19:21:14Z | 2017-06-13T19:21:14Z | 2012

The Arab Spring in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has brought to the forefront key challenges: the need to create job opportunities, equal access, a level playing field, transparency and accountability, and a fair and competitive environment. Crony capitalism, the privileged access of certain elites to favorable legal and regulatory treatment, access to markets, and the coincidence of political and economic power, was a major concern contributing to the uprising. Many saw privilege and corruption as the source of unemployment and inequality, effectively raising barriers to entry and growth for the majority of entrepreneurs. At the same time, practices such as connected lending and preferential land allocations, contributed to poor performance of key institutions, underpinning the market economy. It is critical for the MENA countries to achieve the aspirations of their people and attain sustainable and inclusive development by expanding private-led employment and creating entrepreneurship opportunities. This report assesses the supply and demand of financial services to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the MENA region, as well as the regulatory, institutional and policy environment that determines the cost, risk, and scale of SME finance. Emerging and promising SME finance models for banks, investors, government and regulators are outlined. These could significantly improve the outreach, viability, risk management, and development impacts of SME finance in the MENA region. SMEs need access to longer term credit products and equity, in addition to working capital loans and trade finance. They also need payment and card services, deposit facilities, liquidity management, risk management tools and insurance. The principal role of the state is as an enabler and regulator, providing the financial infrastructure, and legal and policy frameworks that financial institutions need to be able to meet the range of SME financial needs profitably. All this will contribute to attaining a more sustainable and inclusive system that can play a more important role in economic growth, and the regions prosperity.

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