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Inequality of Opportunity Among Egyptian Children

ACCESS TO EDUCATION ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE ACUTE MALNUTRITION ADEQUATE NUTRITION ADULTHOOD AGE GROUPS ANEMIA ANTENATAL CARE ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES BABY BASIC EDUCATION BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE BIRTH ATTENDANT BIRTH ATTENDANTS BIRTHS BLOOD TESTS BODY WEIGHT CARE SERVICES CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHILD HEALTH CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES CHILD IMMUNIZATION CHILD MALNUTRITION CHILD MORTALITY CHILD NUTRITION CHILD NUTRITION OUTCOMES CHILD STUNTING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT COMPLETION RATES COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION CYCLE OF POVERTY DELIVERY CARE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS DEVELOPMENT POLICY DIARRHEA DIARRHEAL DISEASES DISEASES DRINKING WATER EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT EARLY CHILDHOOD EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT EARLY EDUCATION ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC INEQUALITY EDUCATION SECTOR EDUCATION VARIABLES EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL INDICATORS EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES ENROLLMENT ENROLLMENT BY AGE ENROLLMENT FOR CHILDREN ENROLLMENT RATE ENROLLMENT RATES EQUAL ACCESS EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY EQUITABLE ACCESS FAMILIES FAMILY BACKGROUND FERTILITY FORMAL EDUCATION GENDER GAPS HEALTH FACILITIES HEALTH FACILITY HEALTH OUTCOMES HEALTH SERVICES HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT HEIGHT FOR AGE HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD LEVEL HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HYGIENE ILLNESS IMMUNIZATION IMMUNIZATIONS INCOME INEQUALITY INDEXES INEQUITIES INFANT INFANT MORTALITY INFANT MORTALITY RATE INFANTS INTERVENTION IODINE IODINE DEFICIENCY IRON IRON DEFICIENCY IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IRON SUPPLEMENTS LABOR MARKET MAJORITY OF CHILDREN MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN MARRIED WOMEN MATERNAL CARE MATERNAL HEALTH MEASLES MEASLES IMMUNIZATION MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MORTALITY MORTALITY RATE MOTHER NUMBER OF CHILDREN NUTRITION NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES NUTRITIONAL STATUS OBESITY OLD CHILDREN OLD GIRL PARENTAL EDUCATION POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POLIO POSTNATAL CARE PREGNANCIES PREGNANCY PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRESS PURCHASING POWER RACIAL INEQUALITIES RISK FACTORS RISK OF DEATH RURAL AREAS SAME SEX SANITATION SCHOOL AGE SCHOOLING SCREENING SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL SERVICES FOR CHILDREN SIBLINGS SKILLED BIRTH ATTENDANTS SKILLED STAFF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS STAGES OF LIFE STUNTING TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS URBAN AREAS USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES VACCINES VITAMIN A VULNERABILITY VULNERABLE FAMILIES WASTING WORLD POPULATION YOUNG ADULTS YOUNG CHILDREN YOUTH
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World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Egypt, Arab Republic of
2014-10-02T19:47:47Z | 2014-10-02T19:47:47Z | 2014-09

This paper analyzes the level and trends in inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children during the 2000s. The analysis uses severall tools, including comparison of the distributions of early risks and outcomes across circumstance groups; estimation of the human opportunity index; measurement of the relative contributions of circumstances to inequality of opportunity; and decomposition of changes in inequality of opportunity and factors driving them over time. Egypt has made significant progress in the availability of and access to basic services for children and mothers, in some cases with an overall pro-poor effect. In particular, appreciable improvements have been made in healthcare utilization before and during pregnancy and immunizations. As a result, there has been a decline in inequality of opportunity over the past decade, largely attributable to increased coverage by basic services rather than through redistributive effects. However, there are areas of persistent and emerging concerns, including postnatal care utilization, nutrition, and schooling. Nutrition indicators have deteriorated during the 2000s, affecting a quarter of children regardless of their circumstances. Wide disparities in school enrollment persist, notably at the higher levels. Large regional disparities in access to basic infrastructure exist, with Upper Egypt and the Frontier Governorates lagging the rest of the country. Family background, especially parents' education and wealth, and geographic factors are key factors affecting child development outcomes in Egypt. While interventions targeted at the less advantaged circumstance groups may offer significant potential for enhancing overall equity in postnatal care utilization and schooling, a more inclusive approach would be needed to improve child nutrition outcomes.

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