Kenya has experienced a decade of relatively strong economic growth. Between 2000 and 2009, economic growth in Kenya averaged 3.7 percent. However, growth declined sharply in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the violence following the December 2007 presidential elections, of the global food, fuel, and financial crisis, and of the drought that occurred after the fourth consecutive year. This persistent poverty and vulnerability highlights the fact that social protection has an important role to play in the effort to reduce poverty and vulnerability and promote human capital development in Kenya. The Government of Kenya has only recently (June 2011) developed a national social protection policy. This policy builds on the Constitution of Kenya (2010) which includes in its bill of rights the right for every person to social security and binds the state to provide appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependents. However, there has also been a growing trend towards cash transfers to the extent that the majority of government financing to safety nets has been spent on cash transfers in recent years. As a result, the coverage of cash transfer programmes has grown significantly but remains low in comparison with the population in need. This paper is organized as follows: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two gives strategic relevance; chapter three deals with technical soundness; chapter four focuses on institutional arrangements; chapter five presents budget process and expenditure framework; chapter six presents results framework; chapter seven focuses on economic justification; chapter eight gives inputs to the programme action plan; chapter nine gives technical risk rating; and chapter ten gives inputs to the programme implementation support plan.