Uganda is one of the few African countries with a functional national assessment system. Established in 2003, the National Assessment of Progress in Education (NAPE) Program is executed by the Uganda National Examination Board (UNEB). The program uses a learning outcomes measurement framework to annually measure achievement in literacy and numeracy proficiency on the basis of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of learners from the primary three (P3) and primary six (P6) grades. In 2008, the framework was extended to the senior two (S2) grade of lower secondary education for English, math, and biology. However, use of national assessment results to inform improvements in student learning remains weak. These data can nevertheless be used to search for solutions to the challenge of low-quality education in Uganda. The objective of this study is to generate a comprehensive, consolidated evidence base about student learning outcomes and teacher effectiveness in primary and secondary schools Uganda, grounded in existing, nationally owned NAPE assessment data. In specific terms, this analytical work attempts to establish the following: (a) the performance levels and patterns of students in P3, P6, and S2; (b) problematic curriculum areas in the respective grades; (c) teacher competency; and (d) predictors of student and teacher performance levels. The goal is not to reanalyze existing data, but rather, provide additional analysis that can help complement the very useful summary reports provided by NAPE for individual years. This analysis is also supported by findings from the qualitative end-of-cycle (EOC) curriculum examination reports generated by UNEB chief examiners.